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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(7), 1382;

Secretion of IFN-γ Associated with Galectin-9 Production by Pleural Fluid Cells from a Patient with Extrapulmonary Tuberculosis

Division of Disaster-Related Infectious Diseases, International Research Institute of Disaster Science, Tohoku University, 2-1 Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8575, Japan
KKR Tohoku Kosai Hospital, Kokubun-cho 2-3-11, Aoba-ku, Sendai-shi, Miyagi 980-0803, Japan
Department of Health Science and Social Welfare, Kibi International University, 8 Igamachi, Takahashi 716-8508, Japan
Microbiological Research Institute, Otsuka Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., Kagasuno, Kawauchi-cho, Tokushima 771-0192, Japan
Department of Immunology, Kagawa University, 1-1 Saiwaicho, Takamatsu, Kagawa 760-0016, Japan
Medical Chemistry Research Institute, Otsuka Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., Kawauchi-cho, Tokushima 771-0192, Japan
Department of Pathology, Tohoku University Hospital, 1-1 Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8574, Japan
Department of Respiratory Medicine, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-1 Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8574, Japan
Internal Medicine of Respiratory Diseases, Sendai City hospital, Asutonaga-machi, Taihaku-ku, Sendai 982-8502, Japan
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 6 June 2017 / Revised: 23 June 2017 / Accepted: 25 June 2017 / Published: 28 June 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Mechanism of Infectious Disease)
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In this study, we investigated the role of a matricellular protein galectin-9 (Gal-9) in pleural effusion related to tuberculosis (TB). Plasma and pleural fluid of a patient with extrapulmonary TB were analyzed for cytokine content by ELISA and Luminex. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and pleural fluid cells (PFCs) were examined for interferon-γ (IFN-γ) secretion by the enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assay or IFN-γ ELISA, for apoptosis and necrosis by Cell Death Detection ELISA, and also underwent cell sorting. The results indicate that compared to plasma, pleural fluid had increased levels of IFN-γ (1.6 vs. 55.5 pg/mL), IL-10, IL-12p40, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and Gal-9 (3.0 vs. 936.0 pg/mL), respectively. PFCs culture supernatant exhibited higher concentration of Gal-9 compared to PBMCs in culture, consistent with enriched Gal-9 staining in the granuloma that is in closer vicinity to PFCs compared to PBMCs. PFCS displayed higher IFN-γ secretion after stimulation with TB antigens ESAT-6/CFP-10. Furthermore, in PFCs, Gal-9 alone could stimulate IFN-γ synthesis in culture or ELISPOT, which was inhibited by a Gal-9 antagonist lactose, and which may promote apoptosis and necrosis. These findings suggest that Gal-9 could modulate immune responses and participate in immunopathology of pleural effusion during TB. View Full-Text
Keywords: tuberculosis; matricellular protein; galectin-9; pleural effusion; ELISPOT tuberculosis; matricellular protein; galectin-9; pleural effusion; ELISPOT

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Zhao, J.; Shiratori, B.; Chagan-Yasutan, H.; Matsumoto, M.; Niki, T.; Tanaka, M.; Takahashi, Y.; Usami, O.; Ashino, Y.; Hattori, T. Secretion of IFN-γ Associated with Galectin-9 Production by Pleural Fluid Cells from a Patient with Extrapulmonary Tuberculosis. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 1382.

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