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Secretion of Galectin-9 as a DAMP during Dengue Virus Infection in THP-1 Cells

Division of International Cooperation for Disaster Medicine, International Research Institute of Disaster Science (IRIDeS), Tohoku Medical Megabank Organization, 2-1 Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8573, Japan
Graduate School of Biomedical Engineering, Tohoku University, 6-6-05 Aramaki-aoba, Sendai 980-8579, Japan
Department of Virology, Graduate School of Medicine, Tohoku University, 2-1 Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8575, Japan
Graduate School of Health Science Studies, Kibi International University, Iga-cho 8, Takahashi, Okayama 716-8508, Japan
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(8), 1644;
Received: 28 June 2017 / Revised: 17 July 2017 / Accepted: 22 July 2017 / Published: 28 July 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Mechanism of Infectious Disease)
Damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) are endogenous cellular molecules released to the extracellular environment in response to stress conditions such as virus infection. Galectins are β-galactoside-binding proteins that are widely expressed in cells and tissues of the immune system, are localized in the cell cytoplasm, and have roles in inflammatory responses and immune responses against infection. Elevated levels of galectin-9 (Gal-9) in natural human infections have been documented in numerous reports. To investigate the effect of dengue virus (DENV) infection on expression of endogenous Gal-9, monocytic THP-1 cells were infected with varying doses of DENV-3 (multiplicity of infection (MOI) 0.01, 0.03 and 0.1) and incubated at varying time points (Day 1, Day 2, Day 3). Results showed augmentation of Gal-9 levels in the supernatant, reduction of Gal-9 levels in the cells and decreased expression of LGALS9 mRNA, while DENV-3 mRNA copies for all three doses remained stable through time. Dengue virus induced the secretion of Gal-9 as a danger response; in turn, Gal-9 and other inflammatory factors, and stimulated effector responses may have limited further viral replication. The results in this pilot experiment add to the evidence of Gal-9 as a potential DAMP. View Full-Text
Keywords: galectin-9; LGALS9; DAMPs; dengue virus; THP-1 galectin-9; LGALS9; DAMPs; dengue virus; THP-1
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MDPI and ACS Style

Dapat, I.C.; Pascapurnama, D.N.; Iwasaki, H.; Labayo, H.K.; Chagan-Yasutan, H.; Egawa, S.; Hattori, T. Secretion of Galectin-9 as a DAMP during Dengue Virus Infection in THP-1 Cells. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 1644.

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