Next Article in Journal
BDNF Binds Its Pro-Peptide with High Affinity and the Common Val66Met Polymorphism Attenuates the Interaction
Next Article in Special Issue
Cholesterol Crystal Embolism and Chronic Kidney Disease
Previous Article in Journal
CTC-mRNA (AR-V7) Analysis from Blood Samples—Impact of Blood Collection Tube and Storage Time
Previous Article in Special Issue
Hypoxia, HIF, and Associated Signaling Networks in Chronic Kidney Disease
Article Menu
Issue 5 (May) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(5), 1039;

Chronic Kidney Disease and Exposure to Nephrotoxic Metals

Mercer University School of Medicine, Division of Basic Medical Sciences, 1550 College St., Macon, GA 31207, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Alan Parrish
Received: 7 April 2017 / Revised: 2 May 2017 / Accepted: 5 May 2017 / Published: 12 May 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease 2017)
Full-Text   |   PDF [4802 KB, uploaded 16 May 2017]   |  


Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a common progressive disease that is typically characterized by the permanent loss of functional nephrons. As injured nephrons become sclerotic and die, the remaining healthy nephrons undergo numerous structural, molecular, and functional changes in an attempt to compensate for the loss of diseased nephrons. These compensatory changes enable the kidney to maintain fluid and solute homeostasis until approximately 75% of nephrons are lost. As CKD continues to progress, glomerular filtration rate decreases, and remaining nephrons are unable to effectively eliminate metabolic wastes and environmental toxicants from the body. This inability may enhance mortality and/or morbidity of an individual. Environmental toxicants of particular concern are arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury. Since these metals are present throughout the environment and exposure to one or more of these metals is unavoidable, it is important that the way in which these metals are handled by target organs in normal and disease states is understood completely. View Full-Text
Keywords: chronic kidney disease; arsenic; cadmium; lead, mercury chronic kidney disease; arsenic; cadmium; lead, mercury

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Orr, S.E.; Bridges, C.C. Chronic Kidney Disease and Exposure to Nephrotoxic Metals. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 1039.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top