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A Novel Bio-Psychosocial-Behavioral Treatment Model in Schizophrenia

Department of Psychiatry, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul 02841, Korea
Department of Psychiatry, Hanyang University Guri Hospital, Guri 11923, Korea
Department of Psychiatry, Inje University College of Medicine and Haeundae Paik Hospital, Busan 48108, Korea
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Johannes Haybaeck
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(4), 734;
Received: 28 February 2017 / Revised: 25 March 2017 / Accepted: 26 March 2017 / Published: 30 March 2017
PDF [212 KB, uploaded 30 March 2017]


Despite the substantial burden of illness in schizophrenia, there has been a discrepancy between the beneficial effects of an increased use of antipsychotic medications and achieving limited recovery or remission. Because the focus of the most common antipsychotic medications is on dopamine, which is associated with positive symptoms, there is an unmet need for patients with negative symptoms. Since cognitive and negative symptoms rather than positive symptoms are more closely associated with psychosocial impairments in patients with schizophrenia, the non-dopaminergic systems including glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) of the prefrontal cortex should be of concern as well. The balance of excitation and inhibition has been associated with epigenetic modifications and thus can be analyzed in terms of a neurodevelopmental and neural circuitry perspective. Hence, a novel bio-psychosocial-behavioral model for the treatment of schizophrenia is needed to account for the non-dopaminergic systems involved in schizophrenia, rather than dopaminergic mechanisms. This model can be understood from the viewpoint of neurodevelopment and neural circuitry and should include the staging care, personalized care, preventive care, reducing the cognitive deficits, and reducing stigma. Thomas R. Insel proposed this as a goal for schizophrenia treatment to be achieved by 2030. View Full-Text
Keywords: schizophrenia; bio-psychosocial-behavioral; model; neurodevelopment; neural circuitry; cognitive schizophrenia; bio-psychosocial-behavioral; model; neurodevelopment; neural circuitry; cognitive
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Kim, Y.-K.; Choi, J.; Park, S.-C. A Novel Bio-Psychosocial-Behavioral Treatment Model in Schizophrenia. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 734.

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Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
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