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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(2), 416;

The Search for Dietary Supplements to Elevate or Activate Circulating Paraoxonases

Departamento de Farmacología y Fisiología, Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud y del Deporte, Huesca E-22002, Spain
Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria de Aragón, Universidad de Zaragoza, Zaragoza E-50009, Spain
Instituto Agroalimentario de Aragón, Centro de Investigación y Tecnología Agroalimentaria, Universidad de Zaragoza, Zaragoza E-50013, Spain
Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid E-28029, Spain
Departamento de Bioquímica y Biología Molecular y Celular, Facultad de Veterinaria, Zaragoza E-50013, Spain
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Maurizio Battino
Received: 15 December 2016 / Revised: 31 January 2017 / Accepted: 10 February 2017 / Published: 15 February 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Bioactives and Nutraceuticals)
Full-Text   |   PDF [576 KB, uploaded 15 February 2017]   |  


Low levels of paraoxonase 1 (PON1) have been associated with the development of several pathological conditions, whereas high levels have been shown to be anti-atherosclerotic in mouse models. These findings suggest that PON1 could be a good surrogate biomarker. The other members of the family, namely PON2 and PON3, the role of which has been much less studied, deserve more attention. This paper provides a systematic review of current evidence concerning dietary supplements in that regard. Preliminary studies indicate that the response to dietary supplements may have a nutrigenetic aspect that will need to be considered in large population studies or in clinical trials. A wide range of plant preparations have been found to have a positive action, with pomegranate and some of its components being the best characterized and Aronia melanocarpa one of the most active. Flavonoids are found in the composition of all active extracts, with catechins and genistein being the most promising agents for increasing PON1 activity. However, some caveats regarding the dose, length of treatment, bioavailability, and stability of these compounds in formulations still need to be addressed. Once these issues have been resolved, these compounds could be included as nutraceuticals and functional foods capable of increasing PON1 activity, thereby helping with the long-term prevention of atherosclerosis and other chronic ailments. View Full-Text
Keywords: paraoxonase 1; paraoxonase 2; catechins; genistein; plant extracts; atherosclerosis paraoxonase 1; paraoxonase 2; catechins; genistein; plant extracts; atherosclerosis

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Lou-Bonafonte, J.M.; Gabás-Rivera, C.; Navarro, M.A.; Osada, J. The Search for Dietary Supplements to Elevate or Activate Circulating Paraoxonases. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 416.

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