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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(2), 389;

Vanillin Protects Dopaminergic Neurons against Inflammation-Mediated Cell Death by Inhibiting ERK1/2, P38 and the NF-κB Signaling Pathway

College of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Jilin University, Changchun 130062, China
Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Medicine, Cangzhou Technic College, Cangzhou 061001, China
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Maurizio Battino
Received: 1 January 2017 / Revised: 22 January 2017 / Accepted: 6 February 2017 / Published: 12 February 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Bioactives and Nutraceuticals)
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Neuroinflammation plays a very important role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease (PD). After activation, microglia produce pro-inflammatory mediators that damage surrounding neurons. Consequently, the inhibition of microglial activation might represent a new therapeutic approach of PD. Vanillin has been shown to protect dopaminergic neurons, but the mechanism is still unclear. Herein, we further study the underlying mechanisms in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced PD models. In vivo, we firstly established rat models of PD by unilateral injection of LPS into substantia nigra (SN), and then examined the role of vanillin in motor dysfunction, microglial activation and degeneration of dopaminergic neurons. In vitro, murine microglial BV-2 cells were treated with vanillin prior to the incubation of LPS, and then the inflammatory responses and the related signaling pathways were analyzed. The in vivo results showed that vanillin markedly improved the motor dysfunction, suppressed degeneration of dopaminergic neurons and inhibited microglial over-activation induced by LPS intranigral injection. The in vitro studies demonstrated that vanillin reduces LPS-induced expression of inducible nitric oxide (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), IL-1β, and IL-6 through regulating ERK1/2, p38 and NF-κB signaling. Collectively, these data indicated that vanillin has a role in protecting dopaminergic neurons via inhibiting inflammatory activation. View Full-Text
Keywords: vanillin; inflammation; microglia; Parkinson’s disease; MAPK; NF-κB vanillin; inflammation; microglia; Parkinson’s disease; MAPK; NF-κB

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Yan, X.; Liu, D.-F.; Zhang, X.-Y.; Liu, D.; Xu, S.-Y.; Chen, G.-X.; Huang, B.-X.; Ren, W.-Z.; Wang, W.; Fu, S.-P.; Liu, J.-X. Vanillin Protects Dopaminergic Neurons against Inflammation-Mediated Cell Death by Inhibiting ERK1/2, P38 and the NF-κB Signaling Pathway. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 389.

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