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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(2), 241;

Testing Human Skin and Respiratory Sensitizers—What Is Good Enough?

SenzaGen AB, Medicon Village, S-223 81 Lund, Sweden
Department of Immunotechnology, Lund University, Medicon Village (bldg 406), S-223 81 Lund, Sweden
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Chris Jackson
Received: 1 November 2016 / Revised: 3 January 2017 / Accepted: 18 January 2017 / Published: 24 January 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inflammatory Skin Conditions)
Full-Text   |   PDF [177 KB, uploaded 24 January 2017]


Alternative methods for accurate in vitro assessment of skin and respiratory sensitizers are urgently needed. Sensitization is a complex biological process that cannot be evaluated accurately using single events or biomarkers, since the information content is too restricted in these measurements. On the contrary, if the tremendous information content harbored in DNA/mRNA could be mined, most complex biological processes could be elucidated. Genomic technologies available today, including transcriptional profiling and next generation sequencing, have the power to decipher sensitization, when used in the right context. Thus, a genomic test platform has been developed, denoted the Genomic Allergen Rapid Detection (GARD) assay. Due to the high informational content of the GARD test, accurate predictions of both the skin and respiratory sensitizing capacity of chemicals, have been demonstrated. Based on a matured dendritic cell line, acting as a human-like reporter system, information about potency has also been acquired. Consequently, multiparametric diagnostic technologies are disruptive test principles that can change the way in which the next generation of alternative methods are designed. View Full-Text
Keywords: genomics; skin sensitization; adverse outcome pathways; next generation in vitro tests genomics; skin sensitization; adverse outcome pathways; next generation in vitro tests
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Malmborg, A.; Borrebaeck, C.A.K. Testing Human Skin and Respiratory Sensitizers—What Is Good Enough? Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 241.

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