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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(2), 242;

Polymorphisms of Dopamine Receptor Genes and Risk of L-Dopa–Induced Dyskinesia in Parkinson’s Disease

Movement Disorders Centre, Neurology Unit, Department of Translational Medicine, University of Piemonte Orientale, 28100 Novara, Italy
Center of Research in Medical Pharmacology, University of Insubria, 21100 Varese, Italy
Departments of Biotechnology and Life Science, University of Insubria, 21100 Varese, Italy
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Emil Alexov
Received: 31 October 2016 / Revised: 11 January 2017 / Accepted: 16 January 2017 / Published: 24 January 2017
(This article belongs to the Collection Human Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms and Disease Diagnostics)
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L-dopa–induced dyskinesia (LID) is a frequent motor complication of Parkinson’s disease (PD), associated with a negative prognosis. Previous studies showed an association between dopamine receptor (DR) gene (DR) variants and LID, the results of which have not been confirmed. The present study is aimed to determine whether genetic differences of DR are associated with LID in a small but well-characterized cohort of PD patients. To this end we enrolled 100 PD subjects, 50 with and 50 without LID, matched for age, gender, disease duration and dopaminergic medication in a case-control study. We conducted polymerase chain reaction for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in both D1-like (DRD1A48G; DRD1C62T and DRD5T798C) and D2-like DR (DRD2G2137A, DRD2C957T, DRD3G25A, DRD3G712C, DRD4C616G and DRD4nR VNTR 48bp) analyzed genomic DNA. Our results showed that PD patients carrying allele A at DRD3G3127A had an increased risk of LID (OR 4.9; 95% CI 1.7–13.9; p = 0.004). The present findings may provide valuable information for personalizing pharmacological therapy in PD patients. View Full-Text
Keywords: Parkinson’s disease; SNPs; personalized medicine; disease progression; motor complications Parkinson’s disease; SNPs; personalized medicine; disease progression; motor complications

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Comi, C.; Ferrari, M.; Marino, F.; Magistrelli, L.; Cantello, R.; Riboldazzi, G.; Bianchi, M.L.E.; Bono, G.; Cosentino, M. Polymorphisms of Dopamine Receptor Genes and Risk of L-Dopa–Induced Dyskinesia in Parkinson’s Disease. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 242.

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