Next Article in Journal
Two Paralogous Genes Encoding Auxin Efflux Carrier Differentially Expressed in Bitter Gourd (Momordica charantia)
Next Article in Special Issue
The Na, K-ATPase β-Subunit Isoforms Expression in Glioblastoma Multiforme: Moonlighting Roles
Previous Article in Journal
Midkine and NANOG Have Similar Immunohistochemical Expression Patterns and Contribute Equally to an Adverse Prognosis of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma
Previous Article in Special Issue
Heparan Sulfate Biosynthetic System Is Inhibited in Human Glioma Due to EXT1/2 and HS6ST1/2 Down-Regulation
Article Menu
Issue 11 (November) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(11), 2342;

The Molecular and Phenotypic Basis of the Glioma Invasive Perivascular Niche

Children’s Brain Tumour Research Centre, School of Medicine, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2UH, UK
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 30 September 2017 / Revised: 20 October 2017 / Accepted: 30 October 2017 / Published: 6 November 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Glioma Cell Invasion)
Full-Text   |   PDF [1424 KB, uploaded 6 November 2017]   |  


Gliomas are devastating brain cancers that have poor prognostic outcomes for their patients. Short overall patient survival is due to a lack of durable, efficacious treatment options. Such therapeutic difficulties exist, in part, due to several glioma survival adaptations and mechanisms, which allow glioma cells to repurpose paracrine signalling pathways and ion channels within discreet microenvironments. These Darwinian adaptations facilitate invasion into brain parenchyma and perivascular space or promote evasion from anti-cancer defence mechanisms. Ultimately, this culminates in glioma repopulation and migration at distances beyond the original tumour site, which is a considerable obstacle for effective treatment. After an era of failed phase II trials targeting individual signalling pathways, coupled to our increasing knowledge of glioma sub-clonal divergence, combinatorial therapeutic approaches which target multiple molecular pathways and mechanisms will be necessary for better treatment outcomes in treating malignant gliomas. Furthermore, next-generation therapy which focuses on infiltrative tumour phenotypes and disruption of the vascular and perivascular microenvironments harbouring residual disease cells offers optimism for the localised control of malignant gliomas. View Full-Text
Keywords: glioblastoma; tumour invasion; perivascular niche; extracellular matrix; chemokine glioblastoma; tumour invasion; perivascular niche; extracellular matrix; chemokine

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Diksin, M.; Smith, S.J.; Rahman, R. The Molecular and Phenotypic Basis of the Glioma Invasive Perivascular Niche. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 2342.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top