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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(11), 2339; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18112339

Midkine and NANOG Have Similar Immunohistochemical Expression Patterns and Contribute Equally to an Adverse Prognosis of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

1
Department of Dentistry, School of Medicine and Institute of Health Science, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 52727, Korea
2
Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Changwon Gyeongsang National University Hospital, Changwon 51472, Korea
3
OBS/Theriogenology and Biotechnology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 52828, Korea
4
Department of Pathology, School of Medicine Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 52727, Korea
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 18 October 2017 / Revised: 3 November 2017 / Accepted: 4 November 2017 / Published: 6 November 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oral Cancer—Diagnosis and Therapeutics)
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Abstract

To increase the overall survival rate and obtain a better prognosis for oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) patients, the detection of more effective and reliable tumor prognostic markers is needed. This study is focused on the analysis of correlation between the clinicopathological features of OSCCs and the immunohistochemical (IHC) expression patterns of MIDKINE (MK) and NANOG. Sixty-two primary OSCC patients were selected and their pretreatment biopsy specimens were immunohistochemically analyzed for the MK and NANOG proteins. The IHC expression patterns, clinicopathological features, and overall survival rates were assessed to identify any correlations. MK and NANOG showed significantly similar IHC expression patterns: both demonstrated enhanced expression in histologically high-grade and clinically late-stage OSCCs. Weak or negative expression of MK and NANOG was correlated with negative neck node metastasis. Clinicopathologically, late tumor stage, neck node metastasis, high-grade tumor, and palliative treatment groups showed significantly lower overall survival rates. The enhanced expression of MK and NANOG was associated with lower overall survival rates. In particular, enhanced co-detection of MK and NANOG showed significant correlation with poor prognosis. In conclusion, enhanced IHC expression patterns of MK and NANOG in OSCC patients was significantly associated with lower overall survival rates and unfavorable clinicopathological features. These results demonstrate that analysis of IHC expression patterns of MK and NANOG in pretreatment biopsy specimens during the work-up period can provide a more definitive prognosis prediction for each OSCC patient that can help clinicians to develop a more precise individual treatment modality. View Full-Text
Keywords: oral squamous cell carcinoma; immunohistochemistry; MIDKINE; NANOG oral squamous cell carcinoma; immunohistochemistry; MIDKINE; NANOG
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Kim, H.-M.; Kang, Y.-H.; Byun, J.-H.; Jang, S.-J.; Rho, G.-J.; Lee, J.-S.; Park, B.-W. Midkine and NANOG Have Similar Immunohistochemical Expression Patterns and Contribute Equally to an Adverse Prognosis of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 2339.

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