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Open AccessArticle

Phyllanthus emblica Fruit Extract Activates Spindle Assembly Checkpoint, Prevents Mitotic Aberrations and Genomic Instability in Human Colon Epithelial NCM460 Cells

by Xihan Guo 1,2 and Xu Wang 1,2,*
1
School of Life Sciences, Yunnan University, Kunming 650091, China
2
School of Life Sciences, The Engineering Research Center of Sustainable Development and Utilization of Biomass Energy, Yunnan Normal University, Kunming 650500, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Maurizio Battino, Chang Won Choi and Francesca Giampieri
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(9), 1437; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17091437
Received: 11 July 2016 / Revised: 18 August 2016 / Accepted: 22 August 2016 / Published: 3 September 2016
The fruit of Phyllanthus emblica Linn. (PE) has been widely consumed as a functional food and folk medicine in Southeast Asia due to its remarkable nutritional and pharmacological effects. Previous research showed PE delays mitotic progress and increases genomic instability (GIN) in human colorectal cancer cells. This study aimed to investigate the similar effects of PE by the biomarkers related to spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC), mitotic aberrations and GIN in human NCM460 normal colon epithelial cells. Cells were treated with PE and harvested differently according to the biomarkers observed. Frequencies of micronuclei (MN), nucleoplasmic bridge (NPB) and nuclear bud (NB) in cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay were used as indicators of GIN. Mitotic aberrations were assessed by the biomarkers of chromosome misalignment, multipolar division, chromosome lagging and chromatin bridge. SAC activity was determined by anaphase-to- metaphase ratio (AMR) and the expression of core SAC gene budding uninhibited by benzimidazoles related 1 (BubR1). Compared with the control, PE-treated cells showed (1) decreased incidences of MN, NPB and NB (p < 0.01); (2) decreased frequencies of all mitotic aberration biomarkers (p < 0.01); and (3) decreased AMR (p < 0.01) and increased BubR1 expression (p < 0.001). The results revealed PE has the potential to protect human normal colon epithelial cells from mitotic and genomic damages partially by enhancing the function of SAC. View Full-Text
Keywords: Phyllanthus emblica; mitotic aberrations; genomic instability; spindle assembly checkpoint; BubR1 Phyllanthus emblica; mitotic aberrations; genomic instability; spindle assembly checkpoint; BubR1
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MDPI and ACS Style

Guo, X.; Wang, X. Phyllanthus emblica Fruit Extract Activates Spindle Assembly Checkpoint, Prevents Mitotic Aberrations and Genomic Instability in Human Colon Epithelial NCM460 Cells. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 1437.

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