Melanoma Brain Metastasis: Mechanisms, Models, and Medicine
AbstractThe development of brain metastases in patients with advanced stage melanoma is common, but the molecular mechanisms responsible for their development are poorly understood. Melanoma brain metastases cause significant morbidity and mortality and confer a poor prognosis; traditional therapies including whole brain radiation, stereotactic radiotherapy, or chemotherapy yield only modest increases in overall survival (OS) for these patients. While recently approved therapies have significantly improved OS in melanoma patients, only a small number of studies have investigated their efficacy in patients with brain metastases. Preliminary data suggest that some responses have been observed in intracranial lesions, which has sparked new clinical trials designed to evaluate the efficacy in melanoma patients with brain metastases. Simultaneously, recent advances in our understanding of the mechanisms of melanoma cell dissemination to the brain have revealed novel and potentially therapeutic targets. In this review, we provide an overview of newly discovered mechanisms of melanoma spread to the brain, discuss preclinical models that are being used to further our understanding of this deadly disease and provide an update of the current clinical trials for melanoma patients with brain metastases. View Full-Text
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Kircher, D.A.; Silvis, M.R.; Cho, J.H.; Holmen, S.L. Melanoma Brain Metastasis: Mechanisms, Models, and Medicine. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 1468.
Kircher DA, Silvis MR, Cho JH, Holmen SL. Melanoma Brain Metastasis: Mechanisms, Models, and Medicine. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2016; 17(9):1468.Chicago/Turabian Style
Kircher, David A.; Silvis, Mark R.; Cho, Joseph H.; Holmen, Sheri L. 2016. "Melanoma Brain Metastasis: Mechanisms, Models, and Medicine." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 17, no. 9: 1468.
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