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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(5), 749;

Overview of MicroRNAs in Cardiac Hypertrophy, Fibrosis, and Apoptosis

Cardiovascular Research Institute, National University Health System, Singapore 119228, Singapore
Department of Medicine, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117597, Singapore
Cardiac Department, National University Health System, Singapore 119228, Singapore
Christchurch Heart Institute, University of Otago, Christchurch 8014, New Zealand
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: William Chi-shing Cho
Received: 21 March 2016 / Revised: 4 May 2016 / Accepted: 7 May 2016 / Published: 18 May 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue MicroRNA in Various Disease States as Biomarkers)
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MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are non-coding RNAs that play essential roles in modulating the gene expression in almost all biological events. In the past decade, the involvement of miRNAs in various cardiovascular disorders has been explored in numerous in vitro and in vivo studies. In this paper, studies focused upon the discovery of miRNAs, their target genes, and functionality are reviewed. The selected miRNAs discussed herein have regulatory effects on target gene expression as demonstrated by miRNA/3′ end untranslated region (3′UTR) interaction assay and/or gain/loss-of-function approaches. The listed miRNA entities are categorized according to the biological relevance of their target genes in relation to three cardiovascular pathologies, namely cardiac hypertrophy, fibrosis, and apoptosis. Furthermore, comparison across 86 studies identified several candidate miRNAs that might be of particular importance in the ontogenesis of cardiovascular diseases as they modulate the expression of clusters of target genes involved in the progression of multiple adverse cardiovascular events. This review illustrates the involvement of miRNAs in diverse biological signaling pathways and provides an overview of current understanding of, and progress of research into, of the roles of miRNAs in cardiovascular health and disease. View Full-Text
Keywords: microRNA; hypertrophy; fibrosis; apoptosis microRNA; hypertrophy; fibrosis; apoptosis

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Wang, J.; Liew, O.W.; Richards, A.M.; Chen, Y.-T. Overview of MicroRNAs in Cardiac Hypertrophy, Fibrosis, and Apoptosis. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 749.

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