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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(11), 1888;

Procyanidin A2 Modulates IL-4-Induced CCL26 Production in Human Alveolar Epithelial Cells

Food and Wellness Group, The New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Ltd., Palmerston North 4474, New Zealand
School of Food and Nutrition, Massey Institute of Food Science and Technology, Massey University, Palmerston North 4442, New Zealand
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Paula Andrade and Patrícia Valentão
Received: 6 October 2016 / Revised: 8 November 2016 / Accepted: 8 November 2016 / Published: 12 November 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Anti-Inflammatory Agents)
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Allergic asthma is an inflammatory lung disease that is partly sustained by the chemokine eotaxin-3 (CCL26), which extends eosinophil migration into tissues long after allergen exposure. Modulation of CCL26 could represent a means to mitigate airway inflammation. Here we evaluated procyanidin A2 as a means of modulating CCL26 production and investigated interactions with the known inflammation modulator, Interferon γ (IFNγ). We used the human lung epithelial cell line A549 and optimized the conditions for inducing CCL26. Cells were exposed to a range of procyanidin A2 or IFNγ concentrations for varied lengths of time prior to an inflammatory insult of interleukin-4 (IL-4) for 24 h. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to measure CCL26 production. Exposing cells to 5 μM procyanidin A2 (prior to IL-4) reduced CCL26 production by 35% compared with control. Greatest inhibition by procyanidin A2 was seen with a 2 h exposure prior to IL-4, whereas IFNγ inhibition was greatest at 24 h. Concomitant incubation of procyanidin A2 and IFNγ did not extend the inhibitory efficacy of procyanidin A2. These data provide evidence that procyanidin A2 can modulate IL-4-induced CCL26 production by A549 lung epithelial cells and that it does so in a manner that is different from IFNγ. View Full-Text
Keywords: airway inflammation; eotaxin-3 (CCL26); IFNγ; IL-4; procyanidin A2 airway inflammation; eotaxin-3 (CCL26); IFNγ; IL-4; procyanidin A2

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Coleman, S.L.; Kruger, M.C.; Sawyer, G.M.; Hurst, R.D. Procyanidin A2 Modulates IL-4-Induced CCL26 Production in Human Alveolar Epithelial Cells. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 1888.

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