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Carotenoid Cleavage Oxygenases from Microbes and Photosynthetic Organisms: Features and Functions

Instituto Botánico, Departamento de Ciencia y Tecnología Agroforestal y Genética, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, Campus Universitario s/n, 02071 Albacete, Spain
Instituto de Agroquímica y Tecnología de Alimentos (IATA-CSIC), Departamento de Ciencia de los Alimentos, Calle Catedrático Agustín Escardino 7, 46980 Paterna, Spain
Departamento de Genética, Facultad de Biología, Universidad de Sevilla, Avenida Reina Mercedes 6, 41012 Sevilla, Spain
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Vladimír Křen
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(11), 1781;
Received: 5 September 2016 / Revised: 7 October 2016 / Accepted: 8 October 2016 / Published: 26 October 2016
(This article belongs to the Section Bioactives and Nutraceuticals)
PDF [15009 KB, uploaded 26 October 2016]


Apocarotenoids are carotenoid-derived compounds widespread in all major taxonomic groups, where they play important roles in different physiological processes. In addition, apocarotenoids include compounds with high economic value in food and cosmetics industries. Apocarotenoid biosynthesis starts with the action of carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases (CCDs), a family of non-heme iron enzymes that catalyze the oxidative cleavage of carbon–carbon double bonds in carotenoid backbones through a similar molecular mechanism, generating aldehyde or ketone groups in the cleaving ends. From the identification of the first CCD enzyme in plants, an increasing number of CCDs have been identified in many other species, including microorganisms, proving to be a ubiquitously distributed and evolutionarily conserved enzymatic family. This review focuses on CCDs from plants, algae, fungi, and bacteria, describing recent progress in their functions and regulatory mechanisms in relation to the different roles played by the apocarotenoids in these organisms. View Full-Text
Keywords: algae; apocarotenoids; bacteria; carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase; fungi; plants algae; apocarotenoids; bacteria; carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase; fungi; plants

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Ahrazem, O.; Gómez-Gómez, L.; Rodrigo, M.J.; Avalos, J.; Limón, M.C. Carotenoid Cleavage Oxygenases from Microbes and Photosynthetic Organisms: Features and Functions. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 1781.

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