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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(11), 1786;

Circadian Rhythm Shapes the Gut Microbiota Affecting Host Radiosensitivity

Tianjin Key Laboratory of Radiation Medicine and Molecular Nuclear Medicine, Institute of Radiation Medicine, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, 238 Baidi Road, Tianjin 300192, China
Department of Emergency Medicine, North Shore University Hospital; Laboratory of Emergency Medicine, the Feinstein Institute for Medical Research, 350 Community Drive, Manhasset, NY 11030, USA
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Irina V. Zhdanova
Received: 13 August 2016 / Revised: 12 October 2016 / Accepted: 19 October 2016 / Published: 26 October 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms of Circadian Rhythms)
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Modern lifestyles, such as shift work, nocturnal social activities, and jet lag, disturb the circadian rhythm. The interaction between mammals and the co-evolved intestinal microbiota modulates host physiopathological processes. Radiotherapy is a cornerstone of modern management of malignancies; however, it was previously unknown whether circadian rhythm disorder impairs prognosis after radiotherapy. To investigate the effect of circadian rhythm on radiotherapy, C57BL/6 mice were housed in different dark/light cycles, and their intestinal bacterial compositions were compared using high throughput sequencing. The survival rate, body weight, and food intake of mice in diverse cohorts were measured following irradiation exposure. Finally, the enteric bacterial composition of irradiated mice that experienced different dark/light cycles was assessed using 16S RNA sequencing. Intriguingly, mice housed in aberrant light cycles harbored a reduction of observed intestinal bacterial species and shifts of gut bacterial composition compared with those of the mice kept under 12 h dark/12 h light cycles, resulting in a decrease of host radioresistance. Moreover, the alteration of enteric bacterial composition of mice in different groups was dissimilar. Our findings provide novel insights into the effects of biological clocks on the gut bacterial composition, and underpin that the circadian rhythm influences the prognosis of patients after radiotherapy in a preclinical setting. View Full-Text
Keywords: circadian rhythm; intestinal bacterial composition; irradiation circadian rhythm; intestinal bacterial composition; irradiation

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Cui, M.; Xiao, H.; Luo, D.; Zhang, X.; Zhao, S.; Zheng, Q.; Li, Y.; Zhao, Y.; Dong, J.; Li, H.; Wang, H.; Fan, S. Circadian Rhythm Shapes the Gut Microbiota Affecting Host Radiosensitivity. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 1786.

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