Next Article in Journal
Circadian Rhythm Shapes the Gut Microbiota Affecting Host Radiosensitivity
Next Article in Special Issue
The Impact of Vitamin E and Other Fat-Soluble Vitamins on Alzheimer´s Disease
Previous Article in Journal
Integrated Computational Approach for Virtual Hit Identification against Ebola Viral Proteins VP35 and VP40
Previous Article in Special Issue
Tocopherols and Tocotrienols in Common and Emerging Dietary Sources: Occurrence, Applications, and Health Benefits

Biological Properties of Tocotrienols: Evidence in Human Studies

Nutrition Unit, Product Development and Advisory Services Division, Malaysian Palm Oil Board, 6 Persiaran Institusi, Bandar Baru Bangi, 43000 Kajang, Selangor, Malaysia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Maurizio Battino
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(11), 1682;
Received: 14 July 2016 / Revised: 9 September 2016 / Accepted: 28 September 2016 / Published: 26 October 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tocopherols and Tocotrienols: Metabolism and Properties)
Vitamin E has been recognized as an essential vitamin since their discovery in 1922. Although the functions of tocopherols are well established, tocotrienols have been the unsung heroes of vitamin E. Due to their structural differences, tocotrienols were reported to exert distinctive properties compared to tocopherols. While most vegetable oils contain higher amount of tocopherols, tocotrienols were found abundantly in palm oil. Nature has made palm vitamin E to contain up to 70% of total tocotrienols, among which alpha-, gamma- and delta-tocotrienols are the major constituents. Recent advancements have shown their biological properties in conferring protection against cancer, cardiovascular diseases, neurodegeneration, oxidative stress and immune regulation. Preclinical results of these physiological functions were translated into clinical trials gaining global attention. This review will discuss in detail the evidence in human studies to date in terms of efficacy, population, disease state and bioavailability. The review will serve as a platform to pave the future direction for tocotrienols in clinical settings. View Full-Text
Keywords: tocotrienols; human studies; clinical trial; biological properties; palm oil tocotrienols; human studies; clinical trial; biological properties; palm oil
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

MDPI and ACS Style

Meganathan, P.; Fu, J.-Y. Biological Properties of Tocotrienols: Evidence in Human Studies. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 1682.

AMA Style

Meganathan P, Fu J-Y. Biological Properties of Tocotrienols: Evidence in Human Studies. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2016; 17(11):1682.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Meganathan, Puvaneswari, and Ju-Yen Fu. 2016. "Biological Properties of Tocotrienols: Evidence in Human Studies" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 17, no. 11: 1682.

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

Back to TopTop