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Open AccessArticle

Urine Levels of Defensin α1 Reflect Kidney Injury in Leptospirosis Patients

1
Disaster-Related Infectious Disease, International Research Institute of Disaster Science, Tohoku University, 980-8575 Sendai, Japan
2
Emerging Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Tohoku University, 980-8575 Sendai, Japan
3
Adult Infectious Disease and Tropical Medicine Department, San Lazaro Hospital, 1003 Manila, Philippines
4
National Reference Laboratory for HIV/AIDS, Hepatitis, and other STDs, STD/AIDS Cooperative Central Laboratory, 1003 Manila, Philippines
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Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Padjadjaran, 40161 Bandung, Indonesia
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Research Institute of Pharmacological Therapeutical Development, Otsuka Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., 771-0192 Tokushima, Japan
7
Division of Integrated Nephrology and Telemedicine, Tohoku Medical Megabank Organization, Tohoku University, 980-8573 Sendai, Japan
8
Research Center for Zoonosis Control, Hokkaido University, 001-0020 Sapporo, Japan
9
GI-CoRE Global Station for Zoonosis Control, Hokkaido University, 001-0020 Sapporo, Japan
10
Department of Occupational Therapy, Graduate School of Health Science Studies, Kibi International University, 716-8508 Takahashi, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Satohiro Masuda
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(10), 1637; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17101637
Received: 13 July 2016 / Revised: 20 September 2016 / Accepted: 21 September 2016 / Published: 27 September 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomarkers in Drug-Induced Organ Injury)
Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease whose severe forms are often accompanied by kidney dysfunction. In the present study, urinary markers were studied for potential prediction of disease severity. Urine samples from 135 patients with or without leptospirosis at San Lazaro Hospital, the Philippines, were analyzed. Urine levels of defensin α1 (uDA1) were compared with those of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (uNGAL) and N-acetyl-β-d-glucosidase (uNAG). Serum creatinine (Cr) was used as a marker of kidney injury. The levels of uDA1/Cr, uNGAL/Cr, and uNAG/Cr were positive in 46%, 90%, and 80% of leptospirosis patients, and 69%, 70%, and 70% of non-leptospirosis patients, respectively. In leptospirosis patients, the correlation of uDA1/Cr, uNGAL/Cr and uNAG/Cr levels with serum Cr were r = 0.3 (p < 0.01), r = 0.29 (p < 0.01), and r = 0.02 (p = 0.81), respectively. uDA1/Cr levels were correlated with uNGAL/Cr levels (r = 0.49, p < 0.01) and uNAG/Cr levels (r = 0.47, p < 0.0001) in leptospirosis patients. These findings suggest that uDA1, uNGAL, and uNAG were elevated in leptospirosis patients and reflected various types of kidney damage. uDA1 and uNGAL can be used to track kidney injury in leptospirosis patients because of their correlation with the serum Cr level. View Full-Text
Keywords: leptospirosis; defensin α1; neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL); kidney injury; N-acetyl-β-d-glucosidase (NAG) leptospirosis; defensin α1; neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL); kidney injury; N-acetyl-β-d-glucosidase (NAG)
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Chagan-Yasutan, H.; Chen, Y.; Lacuesta, T.L.; Leano, P.S.A.; Iwasaki, H.; Hanan, F.; Taurustiati, D.; Ohmoto, Y.; Ashino, Y.; Saitoh, H.; Kiyomoto, H.; Suzuki, Y.; Telan, F.O.E.; Hattori, T. Urine Levels of Defensin α1 Reflect Kidney Injury in Leptospirosis Patients. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 1637.

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