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Cadmium Protection Strategies—A Hidden Trade-Off?

University of Innsbruck, Institute of Zoology, Technikerstraße 25, 6020 Innsbruck, Austria
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Academic Editor: Reinhard Dallinger
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(1), 139; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17010139
Received: 28 November 2015 / Revised: 15 January 2016 / Accepted: 18 January 2016 / Published: 21 January 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metal Metabolism in Animals)
Cadmium (Cd) is a non-essential transition metal which is introduced into the biosphere by various anthropogenic activities. Environmental pollution with Cd poses a major health risk and Cd toxicity has been extensively researched over the past decades. This review aims at changing the perspective by discussing protection mechanisms available to counteract a Cd insult. Antioxidants, induction of antioxidant enzymes, and complexation of Cd to glutathione (GSH) and metallothionein (MT) are the most potent protective measures to cope with Cd-induced oxidative stress. Furthermore, protection mechanisms include prevention of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, mitophagy and metabolic stress, as well as expression of chaperones. Pre-exposure to Cd itself, or co-exposure to other metals or trace elements can improve viability under Cd exposure and cells have means to reduce Cd uptake and improve Cd removal. Finally, environmental factors have negative or positive effects on Cd toxicity. Most protection mechanisms aim at preventing cellular damage. However, this might not be possible without trade-offs like an increased risk of carcinogenesis. View Full-Text
Keywords: cadmium; protection; detoxification; antioxidants; chelation; metallothionein; hormesis; oxidative stress; mitochondrial damage; nuclear response factor 2 signaling cadmium; protection; detoxification; antioxidants; chelation; metallothionein; hormesis; oxidative stress; mitochondrial damage; nuclear response factor 2 signaling
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MDPI and ACS Style

Sandbichler, A.M.; Höckner, M. Cadmium Protection Strategies—A Hidden Trade-Off? Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 139. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17010139

AMA Style

Sandbichler AM, Höckner M. Cadmium Protection Strategies—A Hidden Trade-Off? International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2016; 17(1):139. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17010139

Chicago/Turabian Style

Sandbichler, Adolf M., and Martina Höckner. 2016. "Cadmium Protection Strategies—A Hidden Trade-Off?" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 17, no. 1: 139. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17010139

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