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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(1), 130;

Iron Homeostasis in Health and Disease

1,†,* and 2,†,*
Inflammation and Neurodegeneration Laboratory, Chronic Diseases Research Center (CEDOC), Nova Medical School (NMS)/Faculdade de Ciências Médicas, University of Lisbon, Lisbon 1150-082, Portugal
Department of Molecular and Translational Medicine (DMMT), University of Brescia, Brescia 25123, Italy
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Reinhard Dallinger
Received: 13 December 2015 / Revised: 4 January 2016 / Accepted: 12 January 2016 / Published: 20 January 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metal Metabolism in Animals)
Full-Text   |   PDF [712 KB, uploaded 20 January 2016]   |  


Iron is required for the survival of most organisms, including bacteria, plants, and humans. Its homeostasis in mammals must be fine-tuned to avoid iron deficiency with a reduced oxygen transport and diminished activity of Fe-dependent enzymes, and also iron excess that may catalyze the formation of highly reactive hydroxyl radicals, oxidative stress, and programmed cell death. The advance in understanding the main players and mechanisms involved in iron regulation significantly improved since the discovery of genes responsible for hemochromatosis, the IRE/IRPs machinery, and the hepcidin-ferroportin axis. This review provides an update on the molecular mechanisms regulating cellular and systemic Fe homeostasis and their roles in pathophysiologic conditions that involve alterations of iron metabolism, and provides novel therapeutic strategies to prevent the deleterious effect of its deficiency/overload. View Full-Text
Keywords: iron; iron metabolism; iron toxicity iron; iron metabolism; iron toxicity

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Gozzelino, R.; Arosio, P. Iron Homeostasis in Health and Disease. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 130.

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