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Kynurenines and Multiple Sclerosis: The Dialogue between the Immune System and the Central Nervous System

Department of Neurology, University of Szeged, Szeged H-6725, Hungary
Department of Neurology, Markhot Ferenc County Hospital, Eger H-3300, Hungary
MTA-SZTE Neuroscience Research Group, Szeged H-6725, Hungary
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Christoph Kleinschnitz
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(8), 18270-18282;
Received: 15 June 2015 / Revised: 22 July 2015 / Accepted: 23 July 2015 / Published: 6 August 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Multiple Sclerosis)
PDF [766 KB, uploaded 6 August 2015]


Multiple sclerosis is an inflammatory disease of the central nervous system, in which axonal transection takes place in parallel with acute inflammation to various, individual extents. The importance of the kynurenine pathway in the physiological functions and pathological processes of the nervous system has been extensively investigated, but it has additionally been implicated as having a regulatory function in the immune system. Alterations in the kynurenine pathway have been described in both preclinical and clinical investigations of multiple sclerosis. These observations led to the identification of potential therapeutic targets in multiple sclerosis, such as synthetic tryptophan analogs, endogenous tryptophan metabolites (e.g., cinnabarinic acid), structural analogs (laquinimod, teriflunomid, leflunomid and tranilast), indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase inhibitors (1MT and berberine) and kynurenine-3-monooxygenase inhibitors (nicotinylalanine and Ro 61-8048). The kynurenine pathway is a promising novel target via which to influence the immune system and to achieve neuroprotection, and further research is therefore needed with the aim of developing novel drugs for the treatment of multiple sclerosis and other autoimmune diseases. View Full-Text
Keywords: kynurenine pathway; multiple sclerosis; indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase kynurenine pathway; multiple sclerosis; indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase

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Rajda, C.; Majláth, Z.; Pukoli, D.; Vécsei, L. Kynurenines and Multiple Sclerosis: The Dialogue between the Immune System and the Central Nervous System. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16, 18270-18282.

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