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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(7), 16683-16694;

Effects of Plant Growth Hormones on Mucor indicus Growth and Chitosan and Ethanol Production

Department of Chemical Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, 84156-83111 Isfahan, Iran
Institutes of Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Isfahan University of Technology, 84156-83111 Isfahan, Iran
Swedish Centre for Resource Recovery, University of Borås, 50190 Borås, Sweden
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Hitoshi Sashiwa
Received: 9 June 2015 / Revised: 16 July 2015 / Accepted: 17 July 2015 / Published: 22 July 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chitins 2015)
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The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and kinetin (KIN) on Mucor indicus growth, cell wall composition, and ethanol production. A semi-synthetic medium, supplemented with 0–5 mg/L hormones, was used for the cultivations (at 32 °C for 48 h). By addition of 1 mg/L of each hormone, the biomass and ethanol yields were increased and decreased, respectively. At higher levels, however, an inverse trend was observed. The glucosamine fraction of the cell wall, as a representative for chitosan, followed similar but sharper changes, compared to the biomass. The highest level was 221% higher than that obtained without hormones. The sum of glucosamine and N-acetyl glucosamine (chitin and chitosan) was noticeably enhanced in the presence of the hormones. Increase of chitosan was accompanied by a decrease in the phosphate content, with the lowest phosphate (0.01 g/g cell wall) being obtained when the chitosan was at the maximum (0.45 g/g cell wall). In conclusion, IAA and KIN significantly enhanced the M. indicus growth and chitosan production, while at the same time decreasing the ethanol yield to some extent. This study shows that plant growth hormones have a high potential for the improvement of fungal chitosan production by M. indicus. View Full-Text
Keywords: chitosan; ethanol; glucosamine; Mucor indicus; plant hormones chitosan; ethanol; glucosamine; Mucor indicus; plant hormones

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Safaei, Z.; Karimi, K.; Golkar, P.; Zamani, A. Effects of Plant Growth Hormones on Mucor indicus Growth and Chitosan and Ethanol Production. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16, 16683-16694.

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