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Open AccessArticle

Quantitative Real-Time PCR Analysis of YKL-40 and Its Comparison with Mammalian Chitinase mRNAs in Normal Human Tissues Using a Single Standard DNA

1
Department of Chemistry and Life Science, Kogakuin University, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0015, Japan
2
Research Fellow of Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (DC2), Koujimachi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-0083, Japan
3
Department of Neuroscience, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, FL 32224, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Ritva Tikkanen
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(5), 9922-9935; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms16059922
Received: 11 March 2015 / Revised: 22 April 2015 / Accepted: 22 April 2015 / Published: 30 April 2015
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry)
YKL-40 (YKL for the first three N-terminal residues of a 40 kDa protein) belongs to a group of human chitinase-like proteins (CLPs), which are similar to chitinases but lack chitinolytic activity. YKL-40 mRNA and its protein levels have been reported elevated in multiple disorders including asthma, cystic fibrosis, rheumatoid arthritis and malignant tumors. Here, we quantified the YKL-40 mRNA levels and compared them with chitinases and housekeeping genes in normal human tissues. To establish the quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) system for evaluation of relative YKL-40 mRNA levels, we constructed a human standard DNA molecule by ligating cDNAs of YKL-40, two mammalian chitinases and two housekeeping genes in a one-to-one ratio. We generated cDNAs from various normal human tissues and analyzed the YKL-40 mRNA expression levels using a qPCR system with the standard DNA. We found that YKL-40 mRNA is present widely in human tissues while its expression patterns exhibit clear tissue specificity. Highest YKL-40 mRNA levels were detected in the liver, followed by kidney, trachea and lung. The levels of YKL-40 mRNA in the kidney and liver were more than 100-times higher than those of chitotriosidase mRNA. Our study provides for the first time a comprehensive analysis of the relative expression levels of YKL-40 mRNA versus mammalian chitinases in normal human tissues. View Full-Text
Keywords: asthma; chitinase; chitinase-like protein; cystic fibrosis; gene expression analysis; malignant tumors; normal human tissues; quantitative real-time PCR system; rheumatoid arthritis; YKL-40 asthma; chitinase; chitinase-like protein; cystic fibrosis; gene expression analysis; malignant tumors; normal human tissues; quantitative real-time PCR system; rheumatoid arthritis; YKL-40
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ohno, M.; Bauer, P.O.; Kida, Y.; Sakaguchi, M.; Sugahara, Y.; Oyama, F. Quantitative Real-Time PCR Analysis of YKL-40 and Its Comparison with Mammalian Chitinase mRNAs in Normal Human Tissues Using a Single Standard DNA. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16, 9922-9935. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms16059922

AMA Style

Ohno M, Bauer PO, Kida Y, Sakaguchi M, Sugahara Y, Oyama F. Quantitative Real-Time PCR Analysis of YKL-40 and Its Comparison with Mammalian Chitinase mRNAs in Normal Human Tissues Using a Single Standard DNA. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2015; 16(5):9922-9935. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms16059922

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ohno, Misa; Bauer, Peter O.; Kida, Yuta; Sakaguchi, Masayoshi; Sugahara, Yasusato; Oyama, Fumitaka. 2015. "Quantitative Real-Time PCR Analysis of YKL-40 and Its Comparison with Mammalian Chitinase mRNAs in Normal Human Tissues Using a Single Standard DNA" Int. J. Mol. Sci. 16, no. 5: 9922-9935. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms16059922

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