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Adipose-Derived Stem Cells: A Review of Signaling Networks Governing Cell Fate and Regenerative Potential in the Context of Craniofacial and Long Bone Skeletal Repair

1
Hagey Laboratory for Pediatric Regenerative Medicine, Department of Surgery, School of Medicine, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305-2200, USA
2
Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche Avanzate, Universita' degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Napoli 80131, Italy
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(6), 9314-9330; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms15069314
Received: 13 February 2014 / Revised: 16 May 2014 / Accepted: 20 May 2014 / Published: 26 May 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Signal Transduction of Tissue Repair)
Improvements in medical care, nutrition and social care are resulting in a commendable change in world population demographics with an ever increasing skew towards an aging population. As the proportion of the world’s population that is considered elderly increases, so does the incidence of osteodegenerative disease and the resultant burden on healthcare. The increasing demand coupled with the limitations of contemporary approaches, have provided the impetus to develop novel tissue regeneration therapies. The use of stem cells, with their potential for self-renewal and differentiation, is one potential solution. Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs), which are relatively easy to harvest and readily available have emerged as an ideal candidate. In this review, we explore the potential for ASCs to provide tangible therapies for craniofacial and long bone skeletal defects, outline key signaling pathways that direct these cells and describe how the developmental signaling program may provide clues on how to guide these cells in vivo. This review also provides an overview of the importance of establishing an osteogenic microniche using appropriately customized scaffolds and delineates some of the key challenges that still need to be overcome for adult stem cell skeletal regenerative therapy to become a clinical reality. View Full-Text
Keywords: ASCs; osteogenesis; scaffolds; signaling; ossification; endochondral; intramembranous; bone; regeneration; stem cells ASCs; osteogenesis; scaffolds; signaling; ossification; endochondral; intramembranous; bone; regeneration; stem cells
MDPI and ACS Style

Senarath-Yapa, K.; McArdle, A.; Renda, A.; Longaker, M.T.; Quarto, N. Adipose-Derived Stem Cells: A Review of Signaling Networks Governing Cell Fate and Regenerative Potential in the Context of Craniofacial and Long Bone Skeletal Repair. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15, 9314-9330.

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