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Open AccessReview

Signaling Pathways in Cartilage Repair

1
Laboratory of Immunorheumatology and Tissue Regeneration/RAMSES, Rizzoli Orthopaedic Institute, via di Barbiano 1/10, Bologna 40136, Italy
2
Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, University of Bologna, Bologna 40138, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(5), 8667-8698; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms15058667
Received: 25 February 2014 / Revised: 28 April 2014 / Accepted: 4 May 2014 / Published: 15 May 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Signal Transduction of Tissue Repair)
In adult healthy cartilage, chondrocytes are in a quiescent phase characterized by a fine balance between anabolic and catabolic activities. In ageing, degenerative joint diseases and traumatic injuries of cartilage, a loss of homeostatic conditions and an up-regulation of catabolic pathways occur. Since cartilage differentiation and maintenance of homeostasis are finely tuned by a complex network of signaling molecules and biophysical factors, shedding light on these mechanisms appears to be extremely relevant for both the identification of pathogenic key factors, as specific therapeutic targets, and the development of biological approaches for cartilage regeneration. This review will focus on the main signaling pathways that can activate cellular and molecular processes, regulating the functional behavior of cartilage in both physiological and pathological conditions. These networks may be relevant in the crosstalk among joint compartments and increased knowledge in this field may lead to the development of more effective strategies for inducing cartilage repair. View Full-Text
Keywords: cartilage; signaling pathways; TGF-β/BMP; IGF; FGF; HIF; Wnt/β-catenin; NF-κB; MAPK; hedgehog cartilage; signaling pathways; TGF-β/BMP; IGF; FGF; HIF; Wnt/β-catenin; NF-κB; MAPK; hedgehog
MDPI and ACS Style

Mariani, E.; Pulsatelli, L.; Facchini, A. Signaling Pathways in Cartilage Repair. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15, 8667-8698.

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