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Nanostructured Guidance for Peripheral Nerve Injuries: A Review with a Perspective in the Oral and Maxillofacial Area

Department of Neurosciences, Institute of Clinical Dentistry,University of Padova, Via Venezia, 90, 35129 Padova, Italy
Department of Neurosciences, University of Padua, via Giustiniani, 5, 35128 Padua, Italy
Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Padova, Via G. Colombo 3, 35100 Padova, Italy
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(2), 3088-3117;
Received: 3 January 2014 / Revised: 3 February 2014 / Accepted: 10 February 2014 / Published: 20 February 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neurological Injuries’ Monitoring, Tracking and Treatment)
PDF [270 KB, uploaded 19 June 2014]


Injury to peripheral nerves can occur as a result of various surgical procedures, including oral and maxillofacial surgery. In the case of nerve transaction, the gold standard treatment is the end-to-end reconnection of the two nerve stumps. When it cannot be performed, the actual strategies consist of the positioning of a nerve graft between the two stumps. Guided nerve regeneration using nano-structured scaffolds is a promising strategy to promote axon regeneration. Biodegradable electrospun conduits composed of aligned nanofibers is a new class of devices used to improve neurite extension and axon outgrowth. Self assembled peptide nanofibrous scaffolds (SAPNSs) demonstrated promising results in animal models for central nervous system injuries, and, more recently, for peripheral nerve injury. Aims of this work are (1) to review electrospun and self-assembled nanofibrous scaffolds use in vitro and in vivo for peripheral nerve regeneration; and (2) its application in peripheral nerve injuries treatment. The review focused on nanofibrous scaffolds with a diameter of less than approximately 250 nm. The conjugation in a nano scale of a natural bioactive factor with a resorbable synthetic or natural material may represent the best compromise providing both biological and mechanical cues for guided nerve regeneration. Injured peripheral nerves, such as trigeminal and facial, may benefit from these treatments. View Full-Text
Keywords: nanofiber; scaffold; nerve regeneration; electrospinning; self-assembly; SAPNS nanofiber; scaffold; nerve regeneration; electrospinning; self-assembly; SAPNS
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Sivolella, S.; Brunello, G.; Ferrarese, N.; Della Puppa, A.; D'Avella, D.; Bressan, E.; Zavan, B. Nanostructured Guidance for Peripheral Nerve Injuries: A Review with a Perspective in the Oral and Maxillofacial Area. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15, 3088-3117.

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