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Cadmium-Induced Pathologies: Where Is the Oxidative Balance Lost (or Not)?

Centre for Environmental Sciences, Hasselt University, Agoralaan Building D, Diepenbeek 3590, Belgium
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These authors contributed equally to this work.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(3), 6116-6143; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms14036116
Received: 24 December 2012 / Revised: 4 February 2013 / Accepted: 20 February 2013 / Published: 18 March 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Redox Signaling in Biology and Patho-Biology)
Over the years, anthropogenic factors have led to cadmium (Cd) accumulation in the environment causing various health problems in humans. Although Cd is not a Fenton-like metal, it induces oxidative stress in various animal models via indirect mechanisms. The degree of Cd-induced oxidative stress depends on the dose, duration and frequency of Cd exposure. Also the presence or absence of serum in experimental conditions, type of cells and their antioxidant capacity, as well as the speciation of Cd are important determinants. At the cellular level, the Cd-induced oxidative stress either leads to oxidative damage or activates signal transduction pathways to initiate defence responses. This balance is important on how different organ systems respond to Cd stress and ultimately define the pathological outcome. In this review, we highlight the Cd-induced oxidant/antioxidant status as well as the damage versus signalling scenario in relation to Cd toxicity. Emphasis is addressed to Cd-induced pathologies of major target organs, including a section on cell proliferation and carcinogenesis. Furthermore, attention is paid to Cd-induced oxidative stress in undifferentiated stem cells, which can provide information for future therapies in preventing Cd-induced pathologies. View Full-Text
Keywords: cadmium; oxidative stress; antioxidants; organ toxicity; signalling; cancer; stem cells cadmium; oxidative stress; antioxidants; organ toxicity; signalling; cancer; stem cells
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MDPI and ACS Style

Nair, A.R.; DeGheselle, O.; Smeets, K.; Van Kerkhove, E.; Cuypers, A. Cadmium-Induced Pathologies: Where Is the Oxidative Balance Lost (or Not)? Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 6116-6143. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms14036116

AMA Style

Nair AR, DeGheselle O, Smeets K, Van Kerkhove E, Cuypers A. Cadmium-Induced Pathologies: Where Is the Oxidative Balance Lost (or Not)? International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2013; 14(3):6116-6143. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms14036116

Chicago/Turabian Style

Nair, Ambily R., Olivier DeGheselle, Karen Smeets, Emmy Van Kerkhove, and Ann Cuypers. 2013. "Cadmium-Induced Pathologies: Where Is the Oxidative Balance Lost (or Not)?" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 14, no. 3: 6116-6143. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms14036116

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