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Article

Skin-Whitening and Anti-Wrinkle Effects of Bioactive Compounds Isolated from Peanut Shell Using Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction

1
Department of Food Science, Sunmoon University, Natural Science 118, 70 Sunmoon-ro 221, Tangjeong-myeon, Asan-si, Chungnam 336-708, Korea
2
FlexPro Biotechnology, Natural Science 128, 70 Sunmoon-ro 221, Tangjeong-myeon, Asan-si, Chungnam 336-708, Korea
3
Center for Next-Generation Semiconductor Technology, Sun Moon University, 70 Sunmoon-ro 221, Tangjeong-myeon, Asan-si, Chungnam 336-708, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Chan Kyung Kim
Molecules 2021, 26(5), 1231; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26051231
Received: 9 February 2021 / Revised: 20 February 2021 / Accepted: 22 February 2021 / Published: 25 February 2021
Response surface methodology was employed to optimize the ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) conditions for simultaneous optimization of dependent variables, including DPPH radical scavenging activity (RSA), tyrosinase activity inhibition (TAI), and collagenase activity inhibition (CAI) of peanut shell extracts. The effects of the main variables including extraction time (5.0~55.0 min, X1), extraction temperature (26.0~94.0 °C, X2), and ethanol concentration (0.0%~99.5%, X3) were optimized. Based on experimental values from each condition, quadratic regression models were derived for the prediction of optimum conditions. The coefficient of determination (R2) of the independent variable was in the range of 0.89~0.96, which demonstrates that the regression model is suitable for the prediction. In predicting optimal UAE conditions based on the superimposing method, extraction time of 31.2 min, extraction temperature of 36.6 °C, and ethanol concentration of 93.2% were identified. Under these conditions, RSA of 74.9%, TAI of 50.6%, and CAI of 86.8% were predicted, showing good agreement with the experimental values. A reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction showed that peanut shell extract decreased mRNA levels of tyrosinase-related protein-1 and matrix metalloproteinase-3 genes in B16-F0 cell. Therefore, we identified the skin-whitening and anti-wrinkle effects of peanut shell extracts at protein as well as gene expression levels, and the results show that peanut shell is an effective cosmetic material for skin-whitening and anti-wrinkle effects. Based on this study, peanut shell, which was considered a byproduct, can be used for the development of healthy foods, medicines, and cosmetics. View Full-Text
Keywords: peanut shell; optimization; skin-whitening; anti-wrinkle; antioxidant; tyrosinase; collagenase; human tyrosinase related protein-1 (TRP-1); matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) peanut shell; optimization; skin-whitening; anti-wrinkle; antioxidant; tyrosinase; collagenase; human tyrosinase related protein-1 (TRP-1); matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)
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MDPI and ACS Style

Gam, D.H.; Hong, J.W.; Kim, J.H.; Kim, J.W. Skin-Whitening and Anti-Wrinkle Effects of Bioactive Compounds Isolated from Peanut Shell Using Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction. Molecules 2021, 26, 1231. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26051231

AMA Style

Gam DH, Hong JW, Kim JH, Kim JW. Skin-Whitening and Anti-Wrinkle Effects of Bioactive Compounds Isolated from Peanut Shell Using Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction. Molecules. 2021; 26(5):1231. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26051231

Chicago/Turabian Style

Gam, Da H., Ji W. Hong, Jun H. Kim, and Jin W. Kim. 2021. "Skin-Whitening and Anti-Wrinkle Effects of Bioactive Compounds Isolated from Peanut Shell Using Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction" Molecules 26, no. 5: 1231. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26051231

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