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Review

Non-Chemical Treatments for the Pre- and Post-Harvest Elicitation of Defense Mechanisms in the Fungi–Avocado Pathosystem

1
Laboratorio Integral de Investigación en Alimentos, TecNM-Instituto Tecnológico de Tepic, Av. Tecnológico 2595, Lagos de Country, Tepic 63175, Mexico
2
Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Forestales, Agrícolas y Pecuarias, Campo Experimental Uruapan, Av. Latinoamericana 1101, Col. Revolución, Uruapan 60150, Mexico
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Centro de Desarrollo de Productos Bióticos, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Carretera Yautepec-Jojutla Km 6, CEPROBI 8, San Isidro, Yautepec 62730, Mexico
4
Centro de Ciencias Genómicas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Mexico, Cuernavaca 62209, Mexico
5
Department of Agricultural, Food and Environmental Sciences, Marche Polytechnic University, 60131 Ancona, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Vincenzo De Feo
Molecules 2021, 26(22), 6819; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26226819
Received: 12 October 2021 / Revised: 5 November 2021 / Accepted: 9 November 2021 / Published: 11 November 2021
The greatest challenge for the avocado (Persea americana Miller) industry is to maintain the quality of the fruit to meet consumer requirements. Anthracnose is considered the most important disease in this industry, and it is caused by different species of the genus Colletotrichum, although other pathogens can be equally important. The defense mechanisms that fruit naturally uses can be triggered in response to the attack of pathogenic microorganisms and also by the application of exogenous elicitors in the form of GRAS compounds. The elicitors are recognized by receptors called PRRs, which are proteins located on the avocado fruit cell surface that have high affinity and specificity for PAMPs, MAMPs, and DAMPs. The activation of defense-signaling pathways depends on ethylene, salicylic, and jasmonic acids, and it occurs hours or days after PTI activation. These defense mechanisms aim to drive the pathogen to death. The application of essential oils, antagonists, volatile compounds, chitosan and silicon has been documented in vitro and on avocado fruit, showing some of them to have elicitor and fungicidal effects that are reflected in the postharvest quality of the fruit and a lower incidence of diseases. The main focus of these studies has been on anthracnose diseases. This review presents the most relevant advances in the use of natural compounds with antifungal and elicitor effects in plant tissues. View Full-Text
Keywords: Bacillus; postharvest; chitosan; essential oils; silicon; Colletotrichum spp. Bacillus; postharvest; chitosan; essential oils; silicon; Colletotrichum spp.
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MDPI and ACS Style

Herrera-González, J.A.; Bautista-Baños, S.; Serrano, M.; Romanazzi, G.; Gutiérrez-Martínez, P. Non-Chemical Treatments for the Pre- and Post-Harvest Elicitation of Defense Mechanisms in the Fungi–Avocado Pathosystem. Molecules 2021, 26, 6819. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26226819

AMA Style

Herrera-González JA, Bautista-Baños S, Serrano M, Romanazzi G, Gutiérrez-Martínez P. Non-Chemical Treatments for the Pre- and Post-Harvest Elicitation of Defense Mechanisms in the Fungi–Avocado Pathosystem. Molecules. 2021; 26(22):6819. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26226819

Chicago/Turabian Style

Herrera-González, Juan A., Silvia Bautista-Baños, Mario Serrano, Gianfranco Romanazzi, and Porfirio Gutiérrez-Martínez. 2021. "Non-Chemical Treatments for the Pre- and Post-Harvest Elicitation of Defense Mechanisms in the Fungi–Avocado Pathosystem" Molecules 26, no. 22: 6819. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26226819

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