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Article

First Evidence of “Earth Wax” Inside the Casting Molds from the Roman Era

1
Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Palacký University, 17. Listopadu 12, 779 00 Olomouc, Czech Republic
2
Section Classical Archaeology, Department of Archaeology and Museology, Faculty of Arts, Masaryk University, Joštova 220/13, 662 43 Brno, Czech Republic
3
Institute of Archaeological Heritage Brno, Kaloudova 1321/30, 614 00 Brno, Czech Republic
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Ryszard Amarowicz
Molecules 2021, 26(14), 4259; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26144259
Received: 21 May 2021 / Revised: 21 June 2021 / Accepted: 8 July 2021 / Published: 13 July 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applied Analytical Chemistry)
This research was focused on the analysis of material composition and organic residues present in three molds found in the Moravian region (Czech Republic) belonging to the Roman era. X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy pointed out the possible remelting of Roman objects in Barbarian territory. The analysis of organic residues retrieved from the internal part of mold #2 by pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry proved the presence of ozokerite wax (“earth wax”). Consequent analysis of this organic residue by Atmospheric Solids Analysis Probe–ion mobility spectrometry–high-resolution mass spectrometry (ASAP-IMS-HRMS) confirmed the presence of ceresin, the main component of ozokerite. Ceresin was also detected in a sample of the organic residue from mold #1. Note that this is the first application of ASAP-IMS-HRMS in archaeological research. The remains of earth wax in molds suggest the production of wax models as an intermediate stage for the production of lost-wax ceramic casting molds. View Full-Text
Keywords: earth wax; ceresin; soot; X-ray fluorescence; gas chromatography; Roman era; mold; mass spectrometry; ion mobility earth wax; ceresin; soot; X-ray fluorescence; gas chromatography; Roman era; mold; mass spectrometry; ion mobility
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MDPI and ACS Style

Jagošová, K.; Jílek, J.; Fojtík, P.; Čižmář, I.; Popelka, M.; Kurka, O.; Kučera, L. First Evidence of “Earth Wax” Inside the Casting Molds from the Roman Era. Molecules 2021, 26, 4259. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26144259

AMA Style

Jagošová K, Jílek J, Fojtík P, Čižmář I, Popelka M, Kurka O, Kučera L. First Evidence of “Earth Wax” Inside the Casting Molds from the Roman Era. Molecules. 2021; 26(14):4259. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26144259

Chicago/Turabian Style

Jagošová, Klára, Jan Jílek, Pavel Fojtík, Ivan Čižmář, Miroslav Popelka, Ondřej Kurka, and Lukáš Kučera. 2021. "First Evidence of “Earth Wax” Inside the Casting Molds from the Roman Era" Molecules 26, no. 14: 4259. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26144259

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