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Open AccessArticle

A Novel Tool for Visualization of Water Molecular Structure and Its Changes, Expressed on the Scale of Temperature Influence

1
Department of Physics and Control, Faculty of Food Science, Szent István University, H-1118 Budapest, Hungary
2
Department for Hygiene and Medical Microbiology, Medical University of Innsbruck, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria
3
Department of Nutritional Science and Production Technology, Faculty of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Kaposvar University, H-7400 Kaposvar, Hungary
4
Biomeasurement Technology Laboratory, Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Kobe University, Kobe 657-8501, Japan
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Christian Huck, Krzysztof Bec and Daniel Cozzolino
Molecules 2020, 25(9), 2234; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25092234
Received: 8 March 2020 / Revised: 30 April 2020 / Accepted: 6 May 2020 / Published: 9 May 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Perspectives in Near Infrared Spectroscopy and Related Techniques)
Aquaphotomics utilizes water-light interaction for in-depth exploration of water, its structure and role in aqueous and biologic systems. The aquagram, a major analytical tool of aquaphotomics, allows comparison of water molecular structures of different samples by comparing their respective absorbance spectral patterns. Temperature is the strongest perturbation of water changing almost all water species. To better interpret and understand spectral patterns, the objective of this work was to develop a novel, temperature-scaled aquagram that provides standardized information about changes in water molecular structure caused by solutes, with its effects translated to those which would have been caused by respective temperature changes. NIR spectra of Milli-Q water in the temperature range of 20–70 °C and aqueous solutions of potassium chloride in concentration range of 1 to 1000 mM were recorded to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed novel tool. The obtained results presented the influence of salt on the water molecular structure expressed as the equivalent effect of temperature in degrees of Celsius. The temperature-based aquagrams showed the well-known structure breaking and structure making effects of salts on water spectral pattern, for the first time presented in the terms of temperature influence on pure water. This new method enables comparison of spectral patterns providing a universal tool for evaluation of various bio-aqueous systems which can provide better insight into the system’s functionality. View Full-Text
Keywords: near infrared spectroscopy; chemometrics; aquaphotomics; water molecular mirror; aquagram near infrared spectroscopy; chemometrics; aquaphotomics; water molecular mirror; aquagram
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kovacs, Z.; Pollner, B.; Bazar, G.; Muncan, J.; Tsenkova, R. A Novel Tool for Visualization of Water Molecular Structure and Its Changes, Expressed on the Scale of Temperature Influence. Molecules 2020, 25, 2234.

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