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Open AccessArticle

Differentiation of South African Game Meat Using Near-Infrared (NIR) Spectroscopy and Hierarchical Modelling

1
Department of Food Science, Stellenbosch University, Private Bag X1, Matieland, Stellenbosch 7602, South Africa
2
Department of Animal Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Private Bag X1, Matieland, Stellenbosch 7602, South Africa
3
Centre for Nutrition and Food Sciences, Queensland Alliance for Agriculture and Food Innovation (QAAFI), The University of Queensland, Health and Food Sciences Precinct, 39 Kessels Rd, Coopers Plains 4108, Australia
4
Institute of Analytical Chemistry and Radiochemistry, CCB-Center of Chemistry and Biomedicine, Innrain 80/82, 6020 Innsbruck, Austria
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Molecules 2020, 25(8), 1845; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25081845
Received: 17 March 2020 / Revised: 10 April 2020 / Accepted: 13 April 2020 / Published: 16 April 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Perspectives in Near Infrared Spectroscopy and Related Techniques)
Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy, combined with multivariate data analysis techniques, was used to rapidly differentiate between South African game species, irrespective of the treatment (fresh or previously frozen) or the muscle type. These individual classes (fresh; previously frozen; muscle type) were also determined per species, using hierarchical modelling. Spectra were collected with a portable handheld spectrophotometer in the 908–1676-nm range. With partial least squares discriminant analysis models, we could differentiate between the species with accuracies ranging from 89.8%–93.2%. It was also possible to distinguish between fresh and previously frozen meat (90%–100% accuracy). In addition, it was possible to distinguish between ostrich muscles (100%), as well as the forequarters and hindquarters of the zebra (90.3%) and springbok (97.9%) muscles. The results confirm NIR spectroscopy’s potential as a rapid and non-destructive method for species identification, fresh and previously frozen meat differentiation, and muscle type determination. View Full-Text
Keywords: meat fraud; game meat; near-infrared spectroscopy; spectral analysis; chemometrics; hierarchical modelling; partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) meat fraud; game meat; near-infrared spectroscopy; spectral analysis; chemometrics; hierarchical modelling; partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA)
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MDPI and ACS Style

Edwards, K.; Manley, M.; Hoffman, L.C.; Beganovic, A.; Kirchler, C.G.; Huck, C.W.; Williams, P.J. Differentiation of South African Game Meat Using Near-Infrared (NIR) Spectroscopy and Hierarchical Modelling. Molecules 2020, 25, 1845.

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