One of the concepts explaining the coincidence of obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D) is the metaflammation theory. This chronic, low-grade inflammatory state originating from metabolic cells in response to excess nutrients, contributes to the development of T2D by increasing insulin resistance in peripheral tissues (mainly in the liver, muscles, and adipose tissue) and by targeting pancreatic islets and in this way impairing insulin secretion. Given the role of this not related to infection inflammation in the development of both: insulin resistance and insulitis, anti-inflammatory strategies could be helpful not only to control T2D symptoms but also to treat its causes. This review presents current concepts regarding the role of metaflammation in the development of T2D in obese individuals as well as data concerning possible application of different anti-inflammatory strategies (including lifestyle interventions, the extra-glycemic potential of classical antidiabetic compounds, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, immunomodulatory therapies, and bariatric surgery) in the management of T2D.
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