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Open AccessArticle

Fluorescent Biaryl Uracils with C5-Dihydro- and Quinazolinone Heterocyclic Appendages in PNA

1
Department of Chemistry, The University of Western Ontario, London, ON N6A 5B7, Canada
2
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Ilam University, Ilam 69315516, Iran
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Current address: Institut für Physiologische Chemie und Pathobiochemie, Universitätsklinikum Münster, Waldeyerstr. 15, 48149 Münster, Germany.
Academic Editor: Katherine Seley-Radtke
Molecules 2020, 25(8), 1995; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25081995
Received: 4 April 2020 / Revised: 20 April 2020 / Accepted: 20 April 2020 / Published: 24 April 2020
There has been much effort to exploit fluorescence techniques in the detection of nucleic acids. Canonical nucleic acids are essentially nonfluorescent; however, the modification of the nucleobase has proved to be a fruitful way to engender fluorescence. Much of the chemistry used to prepare modified nucleobases relies on expensive transition metal catalysts. In this work, we describe the synthesis of biaryl quinazolinone-uracil nucleobase analogs prepared by the condensation of anthranilamide derivatives and 5-formyluracil using inexpensive copper salts. A selection of modified nucleobases were prepared, and the effect of methoxy- or nitro- group substitution on the photophysical properties was examined. Both the dihydroquinazolinone and quinazolinone modified uracils have much larger molar absorptivity (~4–8×) than natural uracil and produce modest blue fluorescence. The quinazolinone-modified uracils display higher quantum yields than the corresponding dihydroquinazolinones and also show temperature and viscosity dependent emission consistent with molecular rotor behavior. Peptide nucleic acid (PNA) monomers possessing quinazolinone modified uracils were prepared and incorporated into oligomers. In the sequence context examined, the nitro-substituted, methoxy-substituted and unmodified quinazolinone inserts resulted in a stabilization (∆Tm = +4.0/insert; +2.0/insert; +1.0/insert, respectively) relative to control PNA sequence upon hybridization to complementary DNA. All three derivatives responded to hybridization by the “turn-on” of fluorescence intensity by ca. 3-to-4 fold and may find use as probes for complementary DNA sequences. View Full-Text
Keywords: peptide nucleic acid; nucleobase-modified PNA; solid-phase synthesis; dihydroquinazolinone; quinazolinone; quinazolinone based nucleobase; fluorescent probes peptide nucleic acid; nucleobase-modified PNA; solid-phase synthesis; dihydroquinazolinone; quinazolinone; quinazolinone based nucleobase; fluorescent probes
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MDPI and ACS Style

Heidari, A.; Ghorbani-Choghamarani, A.; Hajjami, M.; Hudson, R.H.E. Fluorescent Biaryl Uracils with C5-Dihydro- and Quinazolinone Heterocyclic Appendages in PNA. Molecules 2020, 25, 1995.

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