Use of Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH) in Diagnosis and Tailored Therapies in Solid Tumors
Molecular Oncology and Genetics Department, Innovative Medical Forum, The F. Lukaszczyk Oncology Center, 85-796 Bydgoszcz, Poland
Department of Thoracic Surgery and Tumors, Ludwik Rydygier Collegium Medicum in Bydgoszcz, Nicolaus Copernicus University, 85-067 Torun, Poland
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Bartosz Tylkowski, Anna Bajek and Krzysztof Roszkowski
Molecules 2020, 25(8), 1864; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25081864
Received: 9 March 2020 / Revised: 5 April 2020 / Accepted: 10 April 2020 / Published: 17 April 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anticancer Drug Discovery and Development)
Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is a standard technique used in routine diagnostics of genetic aberrations. Thanks to simple FISH procedure is possible to recognize tumor-specific abnormality. Its applications are limited to designed probe type. Gene rearrangements e.g., ALK, ROS1 reflecting numerous translocational partners, deletions of critical regions e.g., 1p and 19q, gene fusions e.g., COL1A1-PDGFB, genomic imbalances e.g., 6p, 6q, 11q and amplifications e.g., HER2 are targets in personalized oncology. Confirmation of genetic marker is frequently a direct indication to start specific, targeted treatment. In other cases, detected aberration helps pathologists to better distinguish soft tissue sarcomas, or to state a final diagnosis. Our main goal is to show that applying FISH to formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue sample (FFPE) enables assessing genomic status in the population of cells deriving from a primary tumor or metastasis. Although many more sophisticated techniques are available, like Real-Time PCR or new generation sequencing, FISH remains a commonly used method in many genetic laboratories.