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Open AccessArticle

The Oxidation-Induced Autofluorescence Hypothesis: Red Edge Excitation and Implications for Metabolic Imaging

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Faculty of Physics, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, 1-2 Leninskie Gory, Moscow 119991, Russia
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Center for Photonics and Quantum Materials, Skolkovo Institute of Science and Technology, Skolkovo Innovation Center, Nobel st., Building 3, Moscow 121205, Russia
3
Department of Physics, University of North Texas, Denton, TX 76203, USA
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International Intergovernmental Organization Joint Institute for Nuclear Research 6 Joliot-Curie St., Dubna, Moscow 141980, Russia
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Faculty of Biology, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, 1-12 Leninskie Gory, Moscow 119234, Russia
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Department of Dermatology, Venerology and Allergology, Center of Experimental and Applied Cutaneous Physiology, Charité–Universitäts medizin Berlin, Corporate Member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, and Berlin Institute of Health, Charitéplatz 1, 10117 Berlin, Germany
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Institute of Spectroscopy of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Fizicheskaya Str., 5, Troitsk, Moscow 108840, Russia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Anna Cleta Croce
Molecules 2020, 25(8), 1863; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25081863
Received: 7 March 2020 / Revised: 8 April 2020 / Accepted: 15 April 2020 / Published: 17 April 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Autofluorescence Spectroscopy and Imaging)
Endogenous autofluorescence of biological tissues is an important source of information for biomedical diagnostics. Despite the molecular complexity of biological tissues, the list of commonly known fluorophores is strictly limited. Still, the question of molecular sources of the red and near-infrared excited autofluorescence remains open. In this work we demonstrated that the oxidation products of organic components (lipids, proteins, amino acids, etc.) can serve as the molecular source of such red and near-infrared excited autofluorescence. Using model solutions and cell systems (human keratinocytes) under oxidative stress induced by UV irradiation we demonstrated that oxidation products can contribute significantly to the autofluorescence signal of biological systems in the entire visible range of the spectrum, even at the emission and excitation wavelengths higher than 650 nm. The obtained results suggest the principal possibility to explain the red fluorescence excitation in a large class of biosystems—aggregates of proteins and peptides, cells and tissues—by the impact of oxidation products, since oxidation products are inevitably presented in the tissue. The observed fluorescence signal with broad excitation originated from oxidation products may also lead to the alteration of metabolic imaging results and has to be taken into account. View Full-Text
Keywords: autofluorescence imaging; red-edge excitation; NIR autofluorescence; endogenous fluorophores; oxidation products; ultraviolet irradiation; keratinocytes autofluorescence imaging; red-edge excitation; NIR autofluorescence; endogenous fluorophores; oxidation products; ultraviolet irradiation; keratinocytes
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Semenov, A.N.; Yakimov, B.P.; Rubekina, A.A.; Gorin, D.A.; Drachev, V.P.; Zarubin, M.P.; Velikanov, A.N.; Lademann, J.; Fadeev, V.V.; Priezzhev, A.V.; Darvin, M.E.; Shirshin, E.A. The Oxidation-Induced Autofluorescence Hypothesis: Red Edge Excitation and Implications for Metabolic Imaging. Molecules 2020, 25, 1863.

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