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Open AccessArticle

Influence of Selected Antidepressants on the Ciliated Protozoan Spirostomum ambiguum: Toxicity, Bioaccumulation, and Biotransformation Products

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Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, Medical University of Warsaw, ul. Banacha 1, 02-097 Warszawa, Poland
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Department of Bioanalysis and Drugs Analysis, Faculty of Pharmacy, Medical University of Warsaw, ul. Banacha 1, 02-097 Warszawa, Poland
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Jolanta Kumirska
Molecules 2020, 25(7), 1476; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25071476 (registering DOI)
Received: 21 February 2020 / Revised: 19 March 2020 / Accepted: 20 March 2020 / Published: 25 March 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pharmaceutical Residues in the Environment)
The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of the most common antidepressants on aquatic protozoa. Spirostomum ambiguum was used as the model protozoan. The biological activity of four antidepressants, namely fluoxetine, sertraline, paroxetine, and mianserin, toward S. ambiguum was evaluated. Sertraline was found to be the most toxic drug with EC50 values of 0.2 to 0.7 mg/L. The toxicity of the antidepressants depended on the pH of the medium and was the highest in alkaline conditions. Sertraline was also the most bioaccumulating compound tested, followed by mianserin. Slow depuration was observed after transferring the protozoa from the drug solutions to a fresh medium, which indicated possible lysosomotropism of the tested antidepressants in the protozoa. The biotransformation products were identified using a high-resolution mass spectrometer after two days of incubation of the protozoa with the tested antidepressants. Four to six potential biotransformation products were observed in the aqueous phase, while no metabolites were detected in the protozoan cells. Because of the low abundance of metabolites in the medium, their structure was not determined. View Full-Text
Keywords: Spirotox; fluoxetine; sertraline; paroxetine; mianserin; pharmaceuticals in the environment Spirotox; fluoxetine; sertraline; paroxetine; mianserin; pharmaceuticals in the environment
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Nałęcz-Jawecki, G.; Wawryniuk, M.; Giebułtowicz, J.; Olkowski, A.; Drobniewska, A. Influence of Selected Antidepressants on the Ciliated Protozoan Spirostomum ambiguum: Toxicity, Bioaccumulation, and Biotransformation Products. Molecules 2020, 25, 1476.

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