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Open AccessArticle

A Fast and Validated High Throughput Bar Adsorptive Microextraction (HT-BAµE) Method for the Determination of Ketamine and Norketamine in Urine Samples

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Centro de Química Estrutural, Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade de Lisboa, Campo Grande, 1749-016 Lisboa, Portugal
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Departamento de Química e Bioquímica, Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade de Lisboa, Campo Grande, 1749-016 Lisboa, Portugal
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Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paraskevas D. Tzanavaras
Molecules 2020, 25(6), 1438; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25061438
Received: 2 March 2020 / Revised: 13 March 2020 / Accepted: 17 March 2020 / Published: 22 March 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Trends in Pharmaceutical Analytical Chemistry)
We developed, optimized and validated a fast analytical cycle using high throughput bar adsorptive microextraction and microliquid desorption (HT-BAμE-μLD) for the extraction and desorption of ketamine and norketamine in up to 100 urine samples simultaneously, resulting in an assay time of only 0.45 min/sample. The identification and quantification were carried out using large volume injection-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry operating in the selected ion monitoring mode (LVI-GC-MS(SIM)). Several parameters that could influencing HT-BAµE were assayed and optimized in order to maximize the recovery yields of ketamine and norketamine from aqueous media. These included sorbent selectivity, desorption solvent and time, as well as shaking rate, microextraction time, matrix pH, ionic strength and polarity. Under optimized experimental conditions, suitable sensitivity (1.0 μg L−1), accuracy (85.5–112.1%), precision (≤15%) and recovery yields (84.9–105.0%) were achieved. Compared to existing methods, the herein described analytical cycle is much faster, environmentally friendly and cost-effective for the quantification of ketamine and norketamine in urine samples. To our knowledge, this is the first work that employs a high throughput based microextraction approach for the simultaneous extraction and subsequent desorption of ketamine and norketamine in up to 100 urine samples simultaneously. View Full-Text
Keywords: ketamine; norketamine; high throughput bar adsorptive microextraction; LVI-GC-MS(SIM); urine ketamine; norketamine; high throughput bar adsorptive microextraction; LVI-GC-MS(SIM); urine
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Ahmad, S.M.; Oliveira, M.N.; Neng, N.R.; Nogueira, J. A Fast and Validated High Throughput Bar Adsorptive Microextraction (HT-BAµE) Method for the Determination of Ketamine and Norketamine in Urine Samples. Molecules 2020, 25, 1438.

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