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Open AccessArticle

Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Properties of Four Lycopus Taxa and an Interaction Study of Their Major Compounds

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Department of Pharmacognosy and Botany, Faculty of Pharmacy, Comenius University in Bratislava, Odbojárov 10, 832 32 Bratislava, Slovakia
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Institute of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine and the University Hospital in Bratislava, Comenius University in Bratislava, Sasinkova 4, 811 08 Bratislava, Slovakia
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Department of Microbiology and Virology, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Comenius University in Bratislava, Mlynská dolina, Ilkovičova 6, 842 15 Bratislava, Slovakia
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Department of Molecular Biology, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Comenius University in Bratislava, Mlynská dolina, Ilkovičova 6, 842 15 Bratislava, Slovakia
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Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis and Nuclear Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Comenius University in Bratislava, Odbojárov 10, 832 32 Bratislava, Slovakia
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National Agricultural and Food Centre, Research Institute of Plant Production, 92168 Piešťany, Slovakia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Dimitris P. Makris
Molecules 2020, 25(6), 1422; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25061422
Received: 18 February 2020 / Revised: 13 March 2020 / Accepted: 17 March 2020 / Published: 20 March 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Natural Compounds and Their Mechanisms of Action)
The compositions of leaf infusions of three genotypes of Lycopus europaeus L. with origins in central Europe, namely L. europaeus A (LeuA), L. europaeus B (LeuB), and L. europaeus C (LeuC), and one genotype of L. exaltatus (Lex), were examined by LC-MS-DAD (Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry and Diode Array Detection) analysis. This revealed the presence of thirteen compounds belonging to the groups of phenolic acids and flavonoids, with a predominance of rosmarinic acid (RA) and luteolin-7-O-glucuronide (LGlr). The antimicrobial activity of leaf infusions was tested on the collection strains of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, and on the clinical Staphylococcus aureus strains. We detected higher activity against Gram-positive bacteria, of which the most susceptible strains were those of Staphylococcus aureus, including methicillin-resistant and poly-resistant strains. Furthermore, we examined the antioxidant activity of leaf infusions using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) methods, and on NIH/3T3 cell lines using dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA). We also studied the mutual interactions between selected infusions, namely RA and/or LGlr. In the mixtures of leaf infusion and RA or LGlr, we observed slight synergism and a high dose reduction index in most cases. This leads to the beneficial dose reduction at a given antioxidant effect level in mixtures compared to the doses of the parts used alone. Therefore, our study draws attention to further applications of the Lycopus leaves as a valuable alternative source of natural antioxidants and as a promising topical antibacterial agent for medicinal use. View Full-Text
Keywords: Lycopus leaf infusion; antimicrobial activity; antioxidant activity; interaction study; rosmarinic acid; luteolin-7-O-glucuronide Lycopus leaf infusion; antimicrobial activity; antioxidant activity; interaction study; rosmarinic acid; luteolin-7-O-glucuronide
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MDPI and ACS Style

Trajčíková, E.; Kurin, E.; Slobodníková, L.; Straka, M.; Lichváriková, A.; Dokupilová, S.; Čičová, I.; Nagy, M.; Mučaji, P.; Bittner Fialová, S. Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Properties of Four Lycopus Taxa and an Interaction Study of Their Major Compounds. Molecules 2020, 25, 1422.

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