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Copper Complexing Capacity and Trace Metal Content in Common and Balsamic Vinegars: Impact of Organic Matter

National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Department of Chemistry, Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry, Panepistimiopolis, Zografou, 15784 Athens, Greece
University of West Attica, Department of Food Science and Technology, Laboratory of Chemistry, Analysis & Design of Food Processes, Agiou Spiridonos 28, Egaleo 122 43, Greece
Institute of Chemical Biology, National Hellenic Research Foundation, 48, Vas. Constantinou Ave., 11635 Athens, Greece
Ruđer Bošković Institute, Division for Marine and Environmental Research, P.O. Box 180, 10002 Zagreb, Croatia
Harokopio University of Athens, Department of Dietetics-Nutrition, School of Health Science and Education, El. Venizelou 70, Kallithea, 176 76 Athens, Greece
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Derek J. McPhee
Molecules 2020, 25(4), 861;
Received: 26 January 2020 / Revised: 11 February 2020 / Accepted: 14 February 2020 / Published: 15 February 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Compounds with Applications in Health and Food)
Complex formation is among the mechanisms affecting metal bioaccessibility. Hence, the quantification of organic metal complexation in food items is of interest. Organic ligands in solutions of environmental and/or food origin function as buffering agents against small changes in dissolved metal concentrations, being able to maintain free metal ion concentrations below the toxicity threshold. Organic matter in vinegars consists of bioactive compounds, such as polyphenols, Maillard reaction endproducts, etc., capable of complexing metal ions. Furthermore, transition metal ions are considered as micronutrients essential for living organisms exerting a crucial role in metabolic processes. In this study, differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry (DPASV), a sensitive electrochemical technique considered to be a powerful tool for the study of metal speciation, was applied for the first time in vinegar samples. The concentrations of Cu complexing ligands (LT) in 43 vinegars retailed in Greece varied between 0.05 and 52 μM, with the highest median concentration determined in balsamic vinegars (14 μM), compared to that of common vinegars (0.86 μM). In 21% of the vinegar samples examined, LT values were exceeded by the corresponding total Cu concentrations, indicating the presence of free Cu ion and/or bound within labile inorganic/organic complexes. Red grape balsamic vinegars exhibited the highest density of Cu ligands per mass unit of organic matter compared to other foodstuffs such as herbal infusions, coffee brews, and beers. Among the 16 metals determined in vinegars, Pb is of particular importance from a toxicological point of view, whereas further investigation is required regarding potential Rb biomagnification. View Full-Text
Keywords: copper complexation; organic ligands; trace metals; vinegars copper complexation; organic ligands; trace metals; vinegars
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Karavoltsos, S.; Sakellari, A.; Sinanoglou, V.J.; Zoumpoulakis, P.; Plavšić, M.; Dassenakis, M.; Kalogeropoulos, N. Copper Complexing Capacity and Trace Metal Content in Common and Balsamic Vinegars: Impact of Organic Matter. Molecules 2020, 25, 861.

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