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Halogenated Metabolites from the Diet of Aplysia dactylomela Rang

1
Institute of Ocean and Earth Sciences, Institute for Advanced Studies Building, University of Malaya, Wilayah Persekutuan Kuala Lumpur 50603, Malaysia
2
School of Marine and Environmental Sciences, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu, Kuala Terengganu 21030, Terengganu, Malaysia
3
Institute of Marine Biotechnology, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu, Kuala Terengganu 21030, Terengganu, Malaysia
4
Nutrition and Dietetics Program, School of Health Sciences, Health Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian 16150, Kelantan, Malaysia
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Molecules 2020, 25(4), 815; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25040815 (registering DOI)
Received: 24 December 2019 / Revised: 7 February 2020 / Accepted: 10 February 2020 / Published: 13 February 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Secondary Metabolites)
Invertebrates are an important source of structurally-diverse and biologically-active halogenated metabolites. The sea hare Aplysia dactylomela Rang has long been known to possess halogenated metabolites of dietary origin that are used as a self-defense mechanism. The compounds from Aplysia dactylomela Rang are comprised mainly of terpenoids and small percentages of C-15 acetogenins, indoles, macrolides, sterols and alkaloids with potent cytotoxic, anti-microbial and anti-inflammatory properties. For decades the metabolites discovered have been investigated for their medical and pharmaceutical applications, so much so that the ecological role of the metabolites has been overlooked. The interaction between Aplysia dactylomela Rang and its diet that is comprised of seaweed can provide information into the distribution and diversity of the seaweed, the application of bioaccumulated secondary metabolites as part of its defense mechanism and the potential roles of these metabolites for adaptation in the marine environment. This paper compiles the diversity of halogenated secondary metabolites documented from Aplysia dactylomela Rang.
Keywords: sea hare; invertebrate; halogenated; secondary metabolite; bio-activity sea hare; invertebrate; halogenated; secondary metabolite; bio-activity
MDPI and ACS Style

Palaniveloo, K.; Rizman-Idid, M.; Nagappan, T.; Abdul Razak, S. Halogenated Metabolites from the Diet of Aplysia dactylomela Rang. Molecules 2020, 25, 815.

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