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Open AccessArticle

Optimization of Total Phenolic and Flavonoid Contents of Defatted Pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus) Seed Extract and Its Antioxidant Properties

1
Halal Products Research Institute, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Putra Infoport, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
2
Department of Agriculture Technology, Faculty of Agriculture, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
3
Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
4
Department of Land Management, Faculty of Agriculture, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: H.P. Vasantha Rupasinghe
Molecules 2020, 25(4), 787; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25040787
Received: 28 November 2019 / Revised: 1 January 2020 / Accepted: 6 January 2020 / Published: 12 February 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flavonoids and Their Disease Prevention and Treatment Potential)
The present study was conducted to optimize extraction process for defatted pitaya seed extract (DPSE) adopting response surface methodology (RSM). A five-level central composite design was used to optimize total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and 2,2′-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothizoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) activities. The independent variables included extraction time (30–60 min), extraction temperature (40–80 °C) and ethanol concentration (60%–80%). Results showed that the quadratic polynomial equations for all models were significant at (p < 0.05), with non-significant lack of fit at p > 0.05 and R2 of more than 0.90. The optimized extraction parameters were established as follows: extraction time of 45 min, extraction temperature of 70 °C and ethanol concentration of 80%. Under these conditions, the recovery of TPC, TFC, and antioxidant activity based on FRAP and ABTS were 128.58 ± 1.61 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g sample, 9.805 ± 0.69 mg quercetin equivalent (QE)/g sample, 1.23 ± 0.03 mM Fe2+/g sample, and 91.62% ± 0.15, respectively. Ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF/MS) analysis identified seven chemical compounds with flavonoids constituting major composition of the DPSE. View Full-Text
Keywords: defatted pitaya seed; extraction; phenolic content; flavonoid content; antioxidant activity; response surface methodology defatted pitaya seed; extraction; phenolic content; flavonoid content; antioxidant activity; response surface methodology
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MDPI and ACS Style

Zulkifli, S.A.; Abd Gani, S.S.; Zaidan, U.H.; Halmi, M.I.E. Optimization of Total Phenolic and Flavonoid Contents of Defatted Pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus) Seed Extract and Its Antioxidant Properties. Molecules 2020, 25, 787.

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