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Hydrogel Properties and Their Impact on Regenerative Medicine and Tissue Engineering
Open AccessReview

Natural-Based Hydrogels for Tissue Engineering Applications

1
3B’s Research Group, I3Bs—Research Institute on Biomaterials, Biodegradables and Biomimetics, University of Minho, Headquarters of the European Institute of Excellence on Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine, AvePark, 4805-017 Barco, Guimarães, Portugal
2
ICVS/3B’s—PT Government Associate Laboratory, 4710-057 Braga, Guimarães, Portugal
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Derek J. McPhee
Molecules 2020, 25(24), 5858; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25245858
Received: 17 November 2020 / Revised: 8 December 2020 / Accepted: 9 December 2020 / Published: 11 December 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydrogels for Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine)
In the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine, hydrogels are used as biomaterials to support cell attachment and promote tissue regeneration due to their unique biomimetic characteristics. The use of natural-origin materials significantly influenced the origin and progress of the field due to their ability to mimic the native tissues’ extracellular matrix and biocompatibility. However, the majority of these natural materials failed to provide satisfactory cues to guide cell differentiation toward the formation of new tissues. In addition, the integration of technological advances, such as 3D printing, microfluidics and nanotechnology, in tissue engineering has obsoleted the first generation of natural-origin hydrogels. During the last decade, a new generation of hydrogels has emerged to meet the specific tissue necessities, to be used with state-of-the-art techniques and to capitalize the intrinsic characteristics of natural-based materials. In this review, we briefly examine important hydrogel crosslinking mechanisms. Then, the latest developments in engineering natural-based hydrogels are investigated and major applications in the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine are highlighted. Finally, the current limitations, future challenges and opportunities in this field are discussed to encourage realistic developments for the clinical translation of tissue engineering strategies. View Full-Text
Keywords: biomimetic; extracellular matrix; proteins; glycosaminoglycans; decellularized tissue; DNA; blood derivatives; supramolecular crosslinking; nanoparticles; anisotropy biomimetic; extracellular matrix; proteins; glycosaminoglycans; decellularized tissue; DNA; blood derivatives; supramolecular crosslinking; nanoparticles; anisotropy
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MDPI and ACS Style

Gomez-Florit, M.; Pardo, A.; Domingues, R.M.A.; Graça, A.L.; Babo, P.S.; Reis, R.L.; Gomes, M.E. Natural-Based Hydrogels for Tissue Engineering Applications. Molecules 2020, 25, 5858. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25245858

AMA Style

Gomez-Florit M, Pardo A, Domingues RMA, Graça AL, Babo PS, Reis RL, Gomes ME. Natural-Based Hydrogels for Tissue Engineering Applications. Molecules. 2020; 25(24):5858. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25245858

Chicago/Turabian Style

Gomez-Florit, Manuel; Pardo, Alberto; Domingues, Rui M.A.; Graça, Ana L.; Babo, Pedro S.; Reis, Rui L.; Gomes, Manuela E. 2020. "Natural-Based Hydrogels for Tissue Engineering Applications" Molecules 25, no. 24: 5858. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25245858

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