Next Article in Journal
Salvia officinalis L. from Italy: A Comparative Chemical and Biological Study of Its Essential Oil in the Mediterranean Context
Next Article in Special Issue
Exhaled Breath and Oxygenator Sweep Gas Propionaldehyde in Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome
Previous Article in Journal
Novel NMR Assignment Strategy Reveals Structural Heterogeneity in Solution of the nsP3 HVD Domain of Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus
Previous Article in Special Issue
Unravelling the Potential of Salivary Volatile Metabolites in Oral Diseases. A Review
Article

Breath Analysis: Comparison among Methodological Approaches for Breath Sampling

1
Department of Biology, University of Bari, 70126 Bari, Italy
2
Apulian Breath Analysis Center (CeRBA), Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico (IRCCS), Istituto Tumori “Giovanni Paolo II”, 70124 Bari, Italy
3
Thoracic Oncology Unit, Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico (IRCCS), Istituto Tumori “Giovanni Paolo II”, 70124 Bari, Italy
4
Department of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Trieste, 34127 Trieste, Italy
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Luigi Perbellini, Lorenzo Monasta and Andreas Tsakal
Molecules 2020, 25(24), 5823; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25245823
Received: 28 May 2020 / Revised: 4 December 2020 / Accepted: 7 December 2020 / Published: 10 December 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs): Their Meaning in Human Health)
Despite promising results obtained in the early diagnosis of several pathologies, breath analysis still remains an unused technique in clinical practice due to the lack of breath sampling standardized procedures able to guarantee a good repeatability and comparability of results. The most diffuse on an international scale breath sampling method uses polymeric bags, but, recently, devices named Mistral and ReCIVA, able to directly concentrate volatile organic compounds (VOCs) onto sorbent tubes, have been developed and launched on the market. In order to explore performances of these new automatic devices with respect to sampling in the polymeric bag and to study the differences in VOCs profile when whole or alveolar breath is collected and when pulmonary wash out with clean air is done, a tailored experimental design was developed. Three different breath sampling approaches were compared: (a) whole breath sampling by means of Tedlar bags, (b) the end-tidal breath collection using the Mistral sampler, and (c) the simultaneous collection of the whole and alveolar breath by using the ReCIVA. The obtained results showed that alveolar fraction of breath was relatively less affected by ambient air (AA) contaminants (p-values equal to 0.04 for Mistral and 0.002 for ReCIVA Low) with respect to whole breath (p-values equal to 0.97 for ReCIVA Whole). Compared to Tedlar bags, coherent results were obtained by using Mistral while lower VOCs levels were detected for samples (both breath and AA) collected by ReCIVA, likely due to uncorrected and fluctuating flow rates applied by this device. Finally, the analysis of all data also including data obtained by explorative analysis of the unique lung cancer (LC) breath sample showed that a clean air supply might determine a further confounding factor in breath analysis considering that lung wash-out is species-dependent. View Full-Text
Keywords: standardization; breath analysis; breath sampling; breath sampling devices; end-tidal breath; ReCIVA; Mistral standardization; breath analysis; breath sampling; breath sampling devices; end-tidal breath; ReCIVA; Mistral
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Di Gilio, A.; Palmisani, J.; Ventrella, G.; Facchini, L.; Catino, A.; Varesano, N.; Pizzutilo, P.; Galetta, D.; Borelli, M.; Barbieri, P.; Licen, S.; de Gennaro, G. Breath Analysis: Comparison among Methodological Approaches for Breath Sampling. Molecules 2020, 25, 5823. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25245823

AMA Style

Di Gilio A, Palmisani J, Ventrella G, Facchini L, Catino A, Varesano N, Pizzutilo P, Galetta D, Borelli M, Barbieri P, Licen S, de Gennaro G. Breath Analysis: Comparison among Methodological Approaches for Breath Sampling. Molecules. 2020; 25(24):5823. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25245823

Chicago/Turabian Style

Di Gilio, Alessia, Jolanda Palmisani, Gianrocco Ventrella, Laura Facchini, Annamaria Catino, Niccolò Varesano, Pamela Pizzutilo, Domenico Galetta, Massimo Borelli, Pierluigi Barbieri, Sabina Licen, and Gianluigi de Gennaro. 2020. "Breath Analysis: Comparison among Methodological Approaches for Breath Sampling" Molecules 25, no. 24: 5823. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25245823

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop