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Rhizopus oligosporus and Lactobacillus plantarum Co-Fermentation as a Tool for Increasing the Antioxidant Potential of Grass Pea and Flaxseed Oil-Cake Tempe

Department of Biotechnology and General Technology of Food, Faculty of Food Technology, University of Agriculture in Krakow, 30-149 Krakow, Poland
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Academic Editor: Maria Atanassova
Molecules 2020, 25(20), 4759; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25204759
Received: 21 September 2020 / Revised: 9 October 2020 / Accepted: 14 October 2020 / Published: 16 October 2020
Tempe-type fermentation originating from Indonesia can enhance the antioxidant activity of plant material. However, this biological potential depends on substrates and applied microorganisms. This study aimed to determine whether co-fermentation with Rhizopus oligosporus and Lactobacillus plantarum improved antioxidant activity of tempe obtained from grass pea seeds with flaxseed oil-cake addition (up to 30%). For this purpose, substances reacting with Folin–Ciocalteu reagent and free radicals scavenging potential were measured in water-soluble fractions and dialysates from simulated in vitro digestion. Additionally, the water-soluble phenolic profile was estimated. The higher level of water-extractable compounds with antioxidant activity was determined in co-fermentation products than in fungal fermentation products. Moreover, the fermentation process with the use of L. plantarum contributed to a greater accumulation of some phenolic acids (gallic acid, protocatechuic acid) in tempe without having a negative effect on the levels of other phenolic compounds determined in fungal fermented tempe. During in vitro digestion simulating the human digestive tract, more antioxidant compounds were released from products obtained after co-fermentation than fungal fermentation. An addition of 20% flaxseed oil-cake and the application of bacterial–fungal co-fermentation, can be considered as an alternative tool to enhance the antioxidant parameters of grass pea tempe. View Full-Text
Keywords: antiradical activity; total phenols; water-soluble fraction; co-fermentation; flaxseed oil-cake; grass pea tempe antiradical activity; total phenols; water-soluble fraction; co-fermentation; flaxseed oil-cake; grass pea tempe
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Stodolak, B.; Starzyńska-Janiszewska, A.; Mika, M.; Wikiera, A. Rhizopus oligosporus and Lactobacillus plantarum Co-Fermentation as a Tool for Increasing the Antioxidant Potential of Grass Pea and Flaxseed Oil-Cake Tempe. Molecules 2020, 25, 4759.

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