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Open AccessArticle

Evaluation of Structurally Different Ionic Liquid-Based Surfactants in a Green Microwave-Assisted Extraction for the Flavonoids Profile Determination of Mangifera sp. and Passiflora sp. Leaves from Canary Islands

1
Department of Analytical chemistry, Faculty of Chemical Technology, University of Pardubice, Studentská 573, 53210 Pardubice, Czech Republic
2
Laboratorio de Materiales para Análisis Químicos (MAT4LL), Departamento de Química, Unidad Departamental de Química Analítica, Universidad de La Laguna (ULL), 38206 Tenerife, Spain
3
Instituto Universitario de Enfermedades Tropicales y Salud Pública de Canarias, Universidad de La Laguna (ULL), 38206 Tenerife, Spain
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Verónica Pino and Idaira Pacheco-Fernández
Molecules 2020, 25(20), 4734; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25204734
Received: 26 September 2020 / Revised: 9 October 2020 / Accepted: 14 October 2020 / Published: 15 October 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances towards Green Analytical Chemistry)
Aqueous solutions of ionic liquids (ILs) with surface active properties were used as extraction solvents, taking advantage of their impressive solvation properties, in a green microwave-assisted solid-liquid extraction method (IL-MA-SLE) for the extraction of flavonoids from passion fruit and mango leaves. The extraction method was combined with high-performance liquid chromatography and photodiode-array detection (HPLC-PDA) and optimized by response surface methodology using the Box-Behnken experimental design. Under optimum conditions, the extraction efficiency of six structurally different IL-based surfactants was evaluated. Thus, imidazolium-, guanidinium- and pyridinium-type ILs with different tailorable characteristics, such as side chain length and multicationic core, were assessed. The decylguanidinium chloride ([C10Gu+][Cl]) IL-based surfactant was selected as key material given its superior performance and its low cytotoxicity, for the determination of flavonoids of several samples of Passiflora sp. and Mangifera sp. leaves from the Canary Islands, and using as target analytes: rutin, quercetin and apigenin. The analysis of 50 mg of plant material only required 525 µL of the low cytotoxic IL-based surfactant solution at 930 mM, 10.5 min of microwave irradiation at 30 °C and 50 W, which involves a simpler, faster, more efficient and greener method in comparison with other strategies reported in the literature for obtaining bioactive compounds profiles from plants. View Full-Text
Keywords: ionic liquid-based surfactant; microwave-assisted extraction; mango; passion fruit; bioactive compounds; flavonoids; plant by-products; green extraction ionic liquid-based surfactant; microwave-assisted extraction; mango; passion fruit; bioactive compounds; flavonoids; plant by-products; green extraction
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MDPI and ACS Style

Moučková, K.; Pacheco-Fernández, I.; Ayala, J.H.; Bajerová, P.; Pino, V. Evaluation of Structurally Different Ionic Liquid-Based Surfactants in a Green Microwave-Assisted Extraction for the Flavonoids Profile Determination of Mangifera sp. and Passiflora sp. Leaves from Canary Islands. Molecules 2020, 25, 4734.

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