Next Article in Journal
Tris(2-Aminoethyl)Amine/Metal Oxides Hybrid Materials—Preparation, Characterization and Catalytic Application
Next Article in Special Issue
The Strong Anti-Kinetoplastid Properties of Bee Propolis: Composition and Identification of the Active Agents and Their Biochemical Targets
Previous Article in Journal
New Zileuton-Hydroxycinnamic Acid Hybrids: Synthesis and Structure-Activity Relationship towards 5-Lipoxygenase Inhibition
Previous Article in Special Issue
The Chemical Composition of Brazilian Green Propolis and Its Protective Effects on Mouse Aortic Endothelial Cells against Inflammatory Injury
Open AccessArticle

NMR Profiling of North Macedonian and Bulgarian Honeys for Detection of Botanical and Geographical Origin

1
Bulgarian NMR Centre, Institute of Organic Chemistry with Centre of Phytochemistry, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bonchev str. Bl. 9, 1113 Sofia, Bulgaria
2
Laboratory Chemistry of Natural Products, Institute of Organic Chemistry with Centre of Phytochemistry, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bonchev str. Bl. 9, 1113 Sofia, Bulgaria
3
Institute of Chemistry, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, Ss. Cyril and Methodius University, 1000 Skopje, North Macedonia
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Lesław Juszczak
Molecules 2020, 25(20), 4687; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25204687
Received: 26 September 2020 / Revised: 10 October 2020 / Accepted: 12 October 2020 / Published: 14 October 2020
Bulgaria and North Macedonia have a long history of the production and use of honey; however, there is an obvious lack of systematic and in-depth research on honey from both countries. The oak honeydew honey is of particular interest, as it is highly valued by consumers because of its health benefits. The aim of this study was to characterize honeydew and floral honeys from Bulgaria and North Macedonia based on their NMR profiles. The 1D and 2D 1H and 13C-NMR spectra were measured of 16 North Macedonian and 22 Bulgarian honey samples. A total of 25 individual substances were identified, including quinovose, which was found for the first time in honey. Chemometric methods (PCA—principal component analysis, PLS-DA—partial least squares discriminant analysis, ANOVA—analysis of variance) were used to detect similarities and differences between samples, as well as to determine their botanical and geographical origin. Semiquantitative data on individual sugars and some other constituents were obtained, which allowed for the reliable classification of honey samples by botanical and geographical origin, based on chemometric approaches. The results enabled us to distinguish oak honeydew honey from other honey types, and to determine the country of origin. NMR was a rapid and convenient method, avoiding the need for other more time-consuming analytical techniques. View Full-Text
Keywords: NMR spectroscopy; honey; honeydew honey; geographical origin; classification NMR spectroscopy; honey; honeydew honey; geographical origin; classification
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

MDPI and ACS Style

Gerginova, D.; Simova, S.; Popova, M.; Stefova, M.; Stanoeva, J.P.; Bankova, V. NMR Profiling of North Macedonian and Bulgarian Honeys for Detection of Botanical and Geographical Origin. Molecules 2020, 25, 4687.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop