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New Biosourced Flame Retardant Agents Based on Gallic and Ellagic Acids for Epoxy Resins
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle

Flame Retardancy of Wood Fiber Materials Using Phosphorus-Modified Wheat Starch

1
Institute of Plant and Wood Chemistry, Technische Universität Dresden, 01062 Dresden, Germany
2
C2MA, IMT—Mines Alès, 6, avenue de Clavières, 30100 Alès, France
3
Wood and Fibre Material Technology, Technische Universität Dresden, 01062 Dresden, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Rodolphe Sonnier, Laurent Ferry and Henri Vahabi
Molecules 2020, 25(2), 335; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25020335 (registering DOI)
Received: 9 December 2019 / Revised: 6 January 2020 / Accepted: 7 January 2020 / Published: 14 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovative Flame Retardants)
Biopolymer-based flame retardants (FR) are a promising approach to ensure adequate protection against fire while minimizing health and environmental risks. Only a few, however, are suitable for industrial purposes because of their poor flame retardancy, complex synthesis pathway, expensive cleaning procedures, and inappropriate application properties. In the present work, wheat starch was modified using a common phosphate/urea reaction system and tested as flame retardant additive for wood fibers. The results indicate that starch derivatives from phosphate/urea systems can reach fire protection efficiencies similar to those of commercial flame retardants currently used in the wood fiber industry. The functionalization leads to the incorporation of fire protective phosphates (up to 38 wt.%) and nitrogen groups (up to 8.3 wt.%). The lowest levels of burning in fire tests were measured with soluble additives at a phosphate content of 3.5 wt.%. Smoldering effects could be significantly reduced compared to unmodified wood fibers. The industrial processing of a starch-based flame retardant on wood insulating materials exhibits the fundamental applicability of flame retardants. These results demonstrate that starch modified from phosphate/urea-systems is a serious alternative to traditional flame retardants. View Full-Text
Keywords: wood fiber; starch derivatives; biopolymer-based flame retardants; smoldering; phosphate; carbamate; urea wood fiber; starch derivatives; biopolymer-based flame retardants; smoldering; phosphate; carbamate; urea
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Gebke, S.; Thümmler, K.; Sonnier, R.; Tech, S.; Wagenführ, A.; Fischer, S. Flame Retardancy of Wood Fiber Materials Using Phosphorus-Modified Wheat Starch. Molecules 2020, 25, 335.

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