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Open AccessArticle

A Preliminary Study on Metabolome Profiles of Buffalo Milk and Corresponding Mozzarella Cheese: Safeguarding the Authenticity and Traceability of Protected Status Buffalo Dairy Products

1
Dipartimento di Medicina Veterinaria e Produzioni Animali, University of Naples “Federico II”, 80137 Naples, Italy
2
Dipartimento di Agraria, University of Naples “Federico II”, 80055 Portici (NA), Italy
3
Istituto per la Protezione Sostenibile delle Piante, National Research Council, 80100 Naples, Italy
4
Faculty of Science, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Derek J. McPhee
Molecules 2020, 25(2), 304; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25020304
Received: 12 November 2019 / Revised: 6 January 2020 / Accepted: 10 January 2020 / Published: 12 January 2020
The aim of this study is to combine advanced GC-MS and metabolite identification in a robust and repeatable technology platform to characterize the metabolome of buffalo milk and mozzarella cheese. The study utilized eleven dairies located in a protected designation of origin (PDO) region and nine dairies located in non-PDO region in Italy. Samples of raw milk (100 mL) and mozzarella cheese (100 g) were obtained from each dairy. A total of 185 metabolites were consistently detected in both milk and mozzarella cheese. The PLS-DA score plots clearly differentiated PDO and non-PDO milk and mozzarella samples. For milk samples, it was possible to divide metabolites into two classes according to region: those with lower concentrations in PDO samples (galactopyranoside, hydroxybuthyric acid, allose, citric acid) and those with lower concentrations in non-PDO samples (talopyranose, pantothenic acid, mannobiose, etc.,). The same was observed for mozzarella samples with the proportion of some metabolites (talopyranose, 2, 3-dihydroxypropyl icosanoate, etc.,) higher in PDO samples while others (tagatose, lactic acid dimer, ribitol, etc.,) higher in non-PDO samples. The findings establish the utility of GC-MS together with mass spectral libraries as a powerful technology platform to determine the authenticity, and create market protection, for “Mozzarella di Bufala Campana.” View Full-Text
Keywords: metabolome; GC-MS; buffalo; milk; mozzarella; authenticity metabolome; GC-MS; buffalo; milk; mozzarella; authenticity
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Salzano, A.; Manganiello, G.; Neglia, G.; Vinale, F.; De Nicola, D.; D’Occhio, M.; Campanile, G. A Preliminary Study on Metabolome Profiles of Buffalo Milk and Corresponding Mozzarella Cheese: Safeguarding the Authenticity and Traceability of Protected Status Buffalo Dairy Products. Molecules 2020, 25, 304.

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