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Open AccessArticle

Sprouts and Needles of Norway Spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) as Nordic Specialty—Consumer Acceptance, Stability of Nutrients, and Bioactivities during Storage

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Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Tietotie 2, FI-02150 Espoo, Finland
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Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Myllytie 1, FI-31600 Jokioinen, Finland
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Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Kaironiementie 15, FI-39700 Parkano, Finland
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Department of Chemistry, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 55, FI-00014 Helsinki, Finland
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Finnish Food Authority, Mustialankatu 3, FI-00790 Helsinki, Finland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Daniel Granato
Molecules 2020, 25(18), 4187; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25184187
Received: 14 August 2020 / Revised: 7 September 2020 / Accepted: 9 September 2020 / Published: 12 September 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recovery of Phytochemicals from Forest Materials)
Developing shoots, i.e., sprouts, and older needles of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) have traditionally been used for medicinal purposes due to the high content of vitamins and antioxidants. Currently, sprouts are available as, for example, superfood and supplements. However, end-product quality and nutritive value may decline in the value-chain from raw material sourcing to processing and storage. We studied (1) impacts of different drying and extraction methods on nutritional composition and antioxidative properties of sprouts and needles, (2) differences between sprouts and needles in nutritional composition and microbiological quality, and (3) production scale quality of the sprouts. Additionally, (4) sprout powder was applied in products (ice-cream and sorbet) and consumer acceptance was evaluated. According to our results, older needles have higher content of dry matter, energy, and calcium, but lower microbial quality than sprouts. Sprouts showed a higher concentration of vitamin C, magnesium, potassium, and phosphorus than older needles. Freeze-drying was the best drying method preserving the quality of both sprouts and needles, e.g., vitamin C content. The antioxidative activity of the sprout extracts were lower than that of needles. Ethanol-water extraction resulted in a higher content of active compounds in the extract than water extraction. Sensory evaluation of food products revealed that on average, 76% of consumers considered sprout-containing products very good or good, and a creamy product was preferred over a water-based sorbet. View Full-Text
Keywords: antioxidative; color; drying; flavor; microbial quality; nutritive value; safety; vitamins antioxidative; color; drying; flavor; microbial quality; nutritive value; safety; vitamins
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Jyske, T.; Järvenpää, E.; Kunnas, S.; Sarjala, T.; Raitanen, J.-E.; Mäki, M.; Pastell, H.; Korpinen, R.; Kaseva, J.; Tupasela, T. Sprouts and Needles of Norway Spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) as Nordic Specialty—Consumer Acceptance, Stability of Nutrients, and Bioactivities during Storage. Molecules 2020, 25, 4187.

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